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A-Z of Harvard referencing examples

Harvard Referencing Guide

This is the abridged online version of the Harvard Referencing guide (third edition) compiled by Leeds Trinity University Library. It has been produced with the intention of helping you understand how to cite and reference information sources accurately and has used Neville’s The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism (2016) as a guide.

Many of the information sources used in this guide have been compiled for illustrative purposes only and any similarity with published works is coincidental. The guide is organised in alphabetical order of the type of information source to be referenced and includes detailed lists of the elements that make up a reference for each information source, a worked example of a reference for each information source and examples of how to produce citations within your text.

A-Z of Harvard examples

Select a resource type to view specific examples of Harvard referencing

Acts of Parliament published after 1963

A reference should include:

  • Short title of the Act, including the year, in italics
  • In round brackets put ch. followed by the chapter number and a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher, followed by a full-stop

If accessed online include the following:

  • [Online] in square brackets after the chapter number
  • After the publisher details the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Finance Act 2015 (ch.11). Norwich: The Stationery Office.

Example reference (online):

Finance Act 2015 (ch.11). [online] Norwich: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/11/pdfs/ukpga_20150011_en.pdf [Accessed 4 June 2015].

Example quotation:

The Finance Act is “an Act to grant certain duties, to alter other duties and to amend the law relating to the National Debt and the Public Revenue, and to make further provision in connection with finance” (Finance Act, 2016).

Example direct citation (paraphrase - whole Act):

The Finance Act (2015) demonstrates this.

Example direct citation (paraphrase - specific section):

The Finance Act (2015, s.1) demonstrates this

Example direct citation (paraphrase - specific subsection):

The Finance Act (2015, s.1(2)) demonstrates this

Example indirect citation (paraphrase - whole Act):

This is demonstrated in recent changes to the law (Finance Act, 2015).

Pre-1963 Acts only

Early UK Acts of Parliament contain a “regnal year”, which is the year of the monarch’s reign during which the Act was passed. This information can be included in the reference, before the chapter number.

In the example below, the regnal year is 23 & 24 Geo. 5. This means the Act was passed during the parliamentary session which spanned the 23rd and 24th years of the reign of George V.

Example reference:

Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (23 & 24 Geo. 5 c. 12). London: The Stationery Office.

Acts of Parliament – Explanatory notes

Explanatory Notes explain the purpose and effect of a bill in 'layperson's terms'. They do not form part of the Act.

A reference should include:

  • Short title of the Act, including the year, in italics, followed by a colon
  • The words Explanatory Notes, in plain text
  • In round brackets put c. followed by the chapter number and a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher, followed by a full-stop
  • Page number, followed by a full-stop

If accessed online include the following:

  • [Online] in square brackets
  • Available at, followed by the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Finance Act 2015: Explanatory Notes (ch.11). Norwich: The Stationery Office.

Example reference (online):

Finance Act 2015: Explanatory Notes (ch.11). Norwich: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/11/notes/contents [Accessed 4 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“The notes need to be read in conjunction with the Act” (Finance Act, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase - whole Act):

The Finance Act (2015) demonstrates this.

Example direct citation (paraphrase - specific section):

The Finance Act (2015, s.1) demonstrates this.

Example direct citation (paraphrase - specific subsection):

The Finance Act (2015, s.1(2)) demonstrates this.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase - whole Act):

This is demonstrated in recent changes to the law (Finance Act, 2015).

Print (e.g. in a magazine)

A reference should include:

  • Advertiser’s name, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • The title of the advertisement (or a short description if it isn’t obvious what the title is), in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • In square brackets the words [Advertisement]
  • The word In, followed by a colon
  • The title of the publication (or the words Advertisement at, followed by the location (i.e. Horsforth Train Station)
  • The date and month of the publication, followed by a comma
  • Page number(s), preceded by p. or pp., followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Parker. (2014) Dreams cannot be rushed. [Advertisement] In: The Spectator. 6 December, p.4.

Example direct citation:

This is evident in a recent advertising campaign by Parker (2014, p.4).

Example indirect citation:

This is evident in a recent advertising campaign (Parker, 2014, p.4).

Broadcast (e.g. television broadcast)

A reference should include:

  • Advertiser’s name, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of the broadcast in brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • The title of the advertisement (or a short description it if isn’t obvious what the title is), in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • In square brackets the word [Advertisement]
  • The name of the channel, followed by a full-stop
  • The date and month of the broadcast followed by a comma
  • The time of the broadcast, using the 24 hour clock, followed by a full-stop.

Example reference:

T-mobile. (2013) iPhone. [Advertisement]. ITV. 8 April, 21:00.

Example direct citation:

The possible uses for mobile technology are endless and are demonstrated in the latest advertisement from T-mobile (2013).

Example indirect citation:

Mobile technology can even be used to control lighting in the home (T-mobile, 2013).

Online

A reference should include:

Example reference:

BMW. (2015) The all new BMW 1 Series: All you need to know. [online advertisement] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tI4Yeg9HvA [Accessed 28 January 2015].

Example quotation:

“The result is a more sporty and focused look” (BMW, 2015).

Example direct citation:

Television advertising is one way to reach a global audience, one example being the 1 Series promotion from BMW (2015).

Example indirect citation:

Television is still a powerful way to reach a wide ranging audience, including the promotion of high performance cars (BMW, 2015).

A reference should include:

  • Name of the company (in full, no abbreviations), followed by a comma
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the report (including the date if part of title) in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop

If available online include the following:

  • Online in [square brackets] after the title
  • After publishing company details, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the web address. If the report was accessed via a subject database put the name of the database, followed by its web address after the colon.
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full stop

Example reference (print):

Marks & Spencer. (2014) Annual report and financial statements 2014. London: Marks & Spencer.

Example reference (online):

Marks & Spencer, (2014) Annual report and financial statements 2014. [online] London: Marks & Spencer. Available at: http://annualreport.marksandspencer.com/downloads/MS_AR2014_Annual_Report.pdf [Accessed 28 January 2015].

Example quotation:

“Our international reach continues to grow” (Marks & Spencer, 2014).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Marks & Spencer (2014) state this in their latest annual report.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is stated in their latest annual report (Marks & Spencer, 2014).

The information you need to produce a reference for an app should include:

  • Name of the organisation who developed the app,followed by a full-stop (if the developer is a named individual use the surname and initial format)
  • Year of publication or update in (round brackets)
  • Title of the app, in italics,
  • Version number in plain text and in (round brackets), where available, followed by a full-stop
  • The word app in [square brackets]
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Zinkia Entertainment (2015) Pocoyo Disco (version 1.4). [app] Available at: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.zinkia.pocoyo_disco&hl=en_GB [Accessed 20 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Have fun creating your own music videos with the dozens of funny animations featuring Pocoyo and his friends” (Zinkia Entertainment, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Zinkia Entertainment (2015) have created an app that lets you create your own music videos using animation.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

There is an app on the market that lets you create your own music videos using animation (Zinkia Entertainment, 2015).

Figures/Screen Shots

Every time you reproduce any artwork in your work you should include a caption just below the image. Such images are refered to as figures. They should be numbered sequentially, if you include more than one, and accompanied by a short description or the title, details of the creator or origin of the image (including page number if reproduced from a print source) and year of creation directly under the image.

Example:

Figure 1: Be Brilliant at Referencing (Leeds Trinity University Library, ND)

Example direct citation:

Figure 1. is an example of a tutorial on referencing produced by Leeds Trinity University Library (ND).

Example indirect citation:

Figure 1. is an example of a tutorial on referencing (Leeds Trinity University, ND)

Example reference:

Leeds Trinity University Library. (ND) Be brilliant at referencing: an introduction to referencing. [image - online] Available at: http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 26 May 2016].

The information below contains advice on how to cite and reference works of art that you refer to in your work, rather than those you reproduce as figures.

Painting, Photograph, Sculpture, Engraving etc. exhibited in a gallery or collection

A reference for an artwork exhibited in a gallery or collection should include:

  • Artist(s)’ surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year the work was produced in brackets (if no date is obvious put N.D.)
  • Title of the work in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • In square brackets put details of the medium used to produce the work i.e. [Painting, oil on canvas]
  • The words Held at: followed by the location of the gallery or collection, followed by a colon Name of the gallery or collection, followed by a full-stop
  • Inventory/catalogue number, followed by a comma
  • Location in gallery or collection, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Hogarth, W. (c. 1740-5) The shrimp girl. [Painting, oil on canvas]. Held at: London: National Gallery. NG1162, Room 35.

Example direct citation:

Hogarth adopted an increasingly experimental approach to portraiture, as shown in The Shrimp Girl (c. 1740-5).

Example indirect citation:

Some portraiture in the mid-18th century began to show an increasingly experimental style, as evidenced by The Shrimp Girl (Hogarth, c.1740-5).

Painting, Photograph, Sculpture, Engraving etc. reproduced in a book (print)

A reference for an artwork reproduced in a book should include:

  • Artist surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year the work was originally produced in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the work (or a short description if no title is obvious), followed by a full stop
  • In square brackets put details of the medium used to produce the work i.e. [Painting, oil on canvas]
  • Page number(s) followed by a full-stop
  • In, followed by a colon
  • Surname of the author/editor(s) of the book, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year the book was published in round brackets, followed by a full-stop
  • Title of the book, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Name of publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If reproduced in an e-book:
  • After the title of the book put [e-book]
  • After the name of the publishing company the words Available at: followed by a colon and the access details
  • After the access details, the word Accessed and the date of access, in [square brackets], followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Van Gogh, V. (1890) The Grove. [Painting, oil on canvas] p.14. In: Skea, R. 2013. Vincent’s trees: paintings and drawings by Van Gogh. London: Thames Hudson.

Example reference (electronic - via Library Search):

Van Gogh, V. (1890) The Grove. [Painting, oil on canvas] p.14. In: Skea, R. (2013). Vincent’s trees: paintings and drawings by Van Gogh. [e-book] London: Thames & Hudson. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 5 May 2017].

Example direct citation:

In his painting, The Grove, Van Gogh (1890) demonstrates his talent for reproducing the colours of nature.

Example indirect citation:

The Grove is a painting which demonstrates a talent for reproducing the colours of nature (Van Gogh, 1890).

Painting, Photograph, Sculpture, Engraving etc. viewed online

A reference for an artwork viewed online should include:

  • Artist's surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial (where the artist or illustrator is not known, start the reference with the title/description of the work, followed by the date, web address etc.)
  • Year the artwork was originally produced in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title in italics (or a short description if no title is obvious), followed by a full stop
  • In square brackets put details of the medium used to produce the work i.e. [Medium - Online]
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address. If in a gallery or collection include the gallery/collection name
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets
  • Include the inventory or catalogue number if in a gallery or collection, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (online image):

Suschitzky, W. (1941) King’s Cross London. [image - online] Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/another-london [Accessed 20 January 2015].

Example reference (artwork in a gallery or collection viewed online):

Gilbert, A. (1899) A bishop saint [Portrait bust - online]. Available at: Victoria & Albert Museum http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O8861/a-bishop-saint-portrait-bust-gilbert-alfred-sir/ [Accessed 30 January 2017]. A.4-1995.

Example direct citation:

The photograph Kings Cross London by Suschitzky (1941) is a touching image.

Example indirect citation:

The photograph Kings Cross London (Suschitzky, 1941) is a touching image.

Painting, Photograph, Sculpture, Engraving etc. created by yourself

A reference for an artwork you created yourself should include the following:

  • Your surname, followed by a comma and their initials, with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year the work was created in brackets (if you can’t remember put ND)
  • Title or description of the photograph in italics followed by a full-stop
  • Medium of the artwork in square brackets, e.g. [photograph]

Example reference:

Morow, S. L. (2017) Science in action. [photograph].

Example direct citation:

The photograph by Morow (2017) shows a small scale science project.

Example indirect citation:

The photograph shows a small scale science project (Morow, 2017).

Photograph in an archive

This example is for referencing a photograph as a primary source, e.g. a historical photograph held in a museum or archive.

A reference for a photograph as a primary source should include:

  • Photographer’s surname, followed by a comma and their initials, with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year the photograph was originally produced in brackets
  • Title or description of the photograph in italics followed by a full-stop
  • [Photograph] in square brackets
  • Location of the gallery or museum, followed by a colon
  • Name of the gallery or museum, followed by a full-stop
  • If available, a reference number for the photo (as used by the museum, archive etc), followed by a full stop
  • If the photo was viewed online include:
  • [Photograph-online] in square brackets after the title
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Edwards, F.W. (1895) Photograph of Empire of India Tea House. [Photograph]. Kew: The National Archives. 1/421/209, Records of the Copyright Office, Stationer’s Company.

Example reference (online):

Edwards, F.W. (1895) Photograph of Empire of India Tea House. [Photograph-online]. Available at: National Archives http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ [Accessed 2 February 2017]. 1/421/209, Records of the Copyright Office, Stationer’s Company.

Example direct citation:

Edwards (1895) clearly shows the high importance placed on the tea industry by the British Raj.

Example indirect citation:

The tea industry was critically important to the economy of the British Raj, as photographic evidence from the late 19th Century clearly attests (Edwards, 1895).

Performance art

A reference should include:

  • Artist's surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year of the performance in brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the performance in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • In square brackets put details of the medium e.g. [performance art]
  • Place of performance, followed by a colon
  • Name of the venue, followed by a comma
  • Day and month of the performance, followed by a full-stop (if this information is not available put a full stop after the name of the venue)

Example reference:

Olowska, A. (2012) Alphabet. [performance art] New York: Museum of Modern Art, 6 June.

Example direct citation:

Alphabet by Olowska (2012) is one such example of this type of performance.

Example indirect citation:

Alphabet (Olowska, 2012) is one such example of this type of performance.

A Bill is a proposal for a new law or proposal to change an existing law that is presented for debate before Parliament.

A reference should include:

  • Short title of the Bill in italics
  • Year of publication in round brackets
  • The House the Bill was heard in
  • The Bill number and session (in round brackets), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online include the following:
  • Online [in square brackets]
  • Available at: followed by the web address
  • The date of access in [square brackets], followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Access to Mental Health Services Bill (2013) House of Commons (Bill 106 2013-2014) London: The Stationery Office.

Example reference (online):

Access to Mental Health Services Bill (2013) House of Commons (Bill 106 2013-2014) London: The Stationery Office. [online] Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2013-2014/0106/cbill_2013-20140106_en_1.htm [Accessed 19 May 2015].

Example quotation:

“Any power to make an order or regulations under this Act is exercisable by statutory instrument” (Access to Mental Health Services Bill, 2013, p.3).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The Access to Mental Health Services Bill (2013) demonstrates this.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This was demonstrated when read before Parliament (Access to Mental Health Services Bill, 2013).

A reference should include:

  • Surname of the author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Year of publication in (round brackets)
  • Title of the blog post in plain text followed by a full-stop
  • Title of the blog, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • In [square brackets] the words blog post (or just blog if not referring to a specific blog post
  • Date and month the post was published, followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • After the web address, in [square brackets] the word Accessed and the date, followed by a full-stop
  • If your reference is for a comment on a blog post:
  • Treat the commenter as the author
  • Put re. before the title of the post
  • Put the words blog comment in the square brackets after the blog title

Example reference:

Pople, C. (2015) My top 18 cheeses. Cheese and Biscuits. [blog post] 17 June. Available at: http://cheesenbiscuits.blogspot.co.uk/2015/06/my-top-18-cheeses.html [Accessed 18 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Creamy and satisfying to eat, it’s also incredibly versatile…it’s the world’s best cheese on toast” (Pople, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

If you’re looking for something tasty to have on toast, Pople (2015) suggests you can’t go wrong with Brie de Meaux.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

If you’re looking for something tasty to have on toast, you can’t go wrong with Brie de Meaux (Pople, 2015).

For information on citing and referencing sources with more than one author/no author, follow the advice in the General Rules section.

Electronic books are available on various platforms and devices. We have included examples below for books that are freely available, accessed via a device, via an eBook platform and via the Leeds Trinity University Library search.

NB: The principles for referencing an electronic book are the same as for print. The guidelines for Edited Book, Edited Chapter etc. provide examples of both print and electronic if accessed via Leeds Trinity University Library search. Please note the examples below if using ebooks from another source.

A reference should include:

  • Author’s surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the book in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details (only include this if NOT the first edition), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed electronically or on a device:
  • After the title [e-book] or [Kindle], [Nook] as appropriate
  • After the publishing company, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (i.e. web address)
  • After the access details, the word Accessed and the date of access, in [square brackets], followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print)

Paxson, H. (2013) The life of cheese. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Example reference (via Leeds Trinity University Library search)

Paxson, H. (2013) The life of cheese. [e-book] Berkeley: University of California Press. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 10 March 2015].

Example reference (via eBook platform)

Paxson, H. (2013) The life of cheese. [e-book] Berkeley: University of California Press. Available at: DawsonEra https://www.dawsonera.com [Accessed 10 March 2015].

Example reference (freely available online)

Paxson, H. (2013) The life of cheese. [e-book] Berkeley: University of California Press. Available at: http://books.google.co.uk [Accessed 10 March 2015].

Example reference (via a specific device)

Paxson, H. (2013) The life of cheese. [Kindle] Berkeley: University of California Press. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk [Accessed 10 March 2015].

Example quotation:

“Jasper Hill exemplifies the new American cheese” (Paxson, 2013, p.1).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Paxson (2013) argues that cheese embodies life.

Example in-direct citation (paraphrase):

It has been argued that cheese embodies life (Paxson, 2013).

A reference should include:

  • Surname and initials of each editor in the order they appear, separated by a comma. Use and to link the last two authors.
  • Ed or Eds, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the book in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details (only include this if NOT the first edition), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (a town or a city, NOT a country), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [e-book], [Kindle] etc after title
  • After name of publishing company the words Available at, followed by the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Holliman, A.J. Ed. (2014) The Routledge international companion to educational psychology. London: Routledge.

Example reference (electronic via Leeds Trinity University Library search):

Holliman, A.J. Ed. (2014) The Routledge international companion to educational psychology. [e-book] London: Routledge. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 4 January 2015].

Example quotation:

“Educational psychology is a globally applied practice” (Holliman, 2014, p.10).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Holliman (2014) provides an international overview of educational psychology.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Educational psychology can vary between countries (Holliman, 2014).

A reference should include:

  • Surname and initials of the author of the chapter, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in brackets
  • Title of the chapter (in plain text)
  • In, followed by a colon
  • Surname and initials of each editor in the order they appear, separated by a comma. Use and to link the last two authors.
  • Ed or Eds, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in brackets, followed by a full-stop (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the book in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details (only include this if NOT the first edition), followed by a full-stop
  • Page numbers of chapter, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (a town or a city, NOT a country), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [e-book], [Kindle] etc after title
  • After name of publishing company the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Sargeant, M. and Lewis, D. (2008) Labour law. In: Muller-Camen, M., Croucher, R. and Leigh, S. Eds. (2008) Human resource management: a case study approach. pp. 69-89. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Example reference (electronic via Leeds Trinity University Library search):

Sargeant, M. and Lewis, D. (2008) Labour law. In: Muller-Camen, M., Croucher, R. and Leigh, S. Eds. (2008) Human resource management: a case study approach. [e-book] pp. 69-89. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 5 March 2015].

Example quotation:

“Work-life balance is essential for productivity” (Sargeant and Lewis, 2008, p.71).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Sargeant and Lewis (2008) make the point that it is important that every company ensures that all staff members are adequately trained.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It is important that every company ensures all staff members are adequately trained (Sargeant and Lewis, 2008).

Foreign language book

A reference should include:

  • Surname and initials of the author, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in brackets
  • Title of the book in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • An English translation of the title (if available) in [square brackets], followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details (only include this if NOT the first edition), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (a town or a city, NOT a country), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [e-book] or [Kindle] etc. after title
  • After the publishing details, put the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • After access details put the word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full stop

Example reference (print):

Proust, M. (1954) A la recherche; du temps perdu. [In search of lost time]. Paris: Gallimard.

Example reference (electronic via Leeds Trinity University Library search):

Proust, M. (1954) A la recherche du temps perdu. [In search of lost time]. [e-book] Paris: Gallimard. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 2 April 2015].

Example quotation:

“Souvent sur la place, quand nous rentrions, ma grand’mere me faisait arreter pour le regarder” (Proust, 1954, p.8).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

A la recherche du temps perdu by Proust (1954) is an excellent example of this type of literature.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A la recherche du temps perdu is a perfect example of this type of literature (Proust, 1954).

Translated book

A reference should include:

  • Surname and initials of the author, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in brackets, followed by a full-stop
  • Title of the book in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Translated from, followed by the original language (if known) then the name of the translator(s) followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (a town or a city, NOT a country), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [e-book] or [Kindle] etc after title
  • After the publishing details, put the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • After access details put the word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Proust, M. (1983) Remembrance of things past. Translated from French by C.K. Scott Moncrieff, Terence Kilmartin and Andreas Mayor. Middlesex: Penguin Books.

Example reference (electronic via Leeds Trinity University Library search):

Proust, M. (1983) Remembrance of things past. [e-book] Translated from French by C.K. Scott Moncrieff, Terence Kilmartin and Andreas Mayor. Middlesex: Penguin Books. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 13 February 2015].

Example quotation:

“I believe that I alone had noticed” (Proust, 1983, p.514).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Remembrance of things past by Proust (1983) is an excellent example of a translated book.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Remembrance of things past (Proust, 1983) is an excellent example of a translated book

A reference should include:

  • Surname and initials of the author of the introduction, foreword, afterword followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in brackets
  • Introduction, Foreword, Afterword followed by the word in (in plain text)
  • Surname and initials of the author of the book followed by a full-stop
  • Title of the book in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details (only include this if NOT the first edition), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (a town or a city, NOT a country), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If electronic:
  • Put [ebook] or [Kindle] etc. after title
  • Put the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • After access details put the word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Foot, M. (2011) Foreword in Tillotson, M. Ed. SOE and the Resistance: as told in The Times Obituaries. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Example reference (electronic via LTU Library Catalogue):

Foot, M. (2011) Foreword in Tillotson, M. Ed. SOE and The Resistance: as told in The Times Obituaries. [e-book] London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library https://lib.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 12 March 2015].

Example quotation:

“SOE was never a popular department in Whitehall” (Foot, 2011, p.viii).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Foot (2011) suggests the department fell out of favour with Whitehall.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It has been suggested that the department fell out of favour with Whitehall (Foot, 2011).

A reference should include:

  • Surname of author/editor, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Ed./Eds. if editor(s)
  • Year of republication in round brackets
  • Title, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (if available), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company (if available), followed by a full-stop
  • In round brackets the words ‘originally published by’ followed by the publishing company and original date of publication
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [e-book] in square brackets after the title
  • After publishing company type Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (for more information see ‘Electronic Books’)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Greenhough, J. (2010) Information retrieval. London: Bibgraphics Publications. (originally published by Buzzard Books 1997).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Greenhough (1997/2010) has argued that information retrieval is complex.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It has been argued that information retrieval is complex (Greenhough, 1997/2010).

A reference should include:

  • Corporate author
  • Year of publication (in round brackets) (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Standard number
  • Title of the standard in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after the title
  • After the publishing company, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the web address. If accessed via a subject database, put the name of the database, followed by the web address after the colon
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

British Standards Institute. (2011) BS ISO 3864-1:2011 Graphical symbols. Safety colours and safety signs. Design principles for safety signs and safety markings. London: British Standards Institution.

Example reference (online):

British Standards Institution. (2011) BS ISO 3864-1:2011 Graphical symbols. Safety colours and safety signs. Design principles for safety signs and safety markings. [online] London: British Standards Institution. Available at: http://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000030197378 [Accessed 13 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Design principles for safety signs and safety markings” (British Standards Institution, 2011, p.9).

Example direct citation:

Specific graphic symbols and shapes should be used for safety signs, according to standards outlined by the British Standards Institute (2011).

Example indirect citation:

Specific graphic symbols and shapes should be used for safety signs (British Standards Institute, 2011).

If you mention a building in passing, you can just use the name of the building, e.g. “The Crown Jewels are stored in the Tower of London.”

However, if your work is focusing on a specific building or buildings in detail, you can reference each building individually as below.

A reference for a building should include the following:

  • Surname of the building’s architect, followed by a comma, and their initials, followed by a full stop
  • (arch.) for architect in round brackets
  • Date/s of the building’s construction in round brackets
  • Name of the building followed by a full stop
  • Location or address of the building followed by a full stop

Example reference:

Utzon, J. (arch.) (1959-1973) Sydney Opera House. Bennelong Point, Sydney.

Example direct citation:

The Sydney Opera House (Utzon, 1959-1973) was considered a groundbreaking design.

Example indirect citation:

Government interference delayed the construction of the Sydney Opera House (Utzon, 1959-1973).

A reference should include:

  • Surname of each editor, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial in the order they appear, separated by a comma.
  • Ed or Eds, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the calendar in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Volume details (if known), followed by a full-stop
  • Page numbers (if known), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • [online] after the title
  • After publishing company the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (if freely available online add the web address, if accessed via a database give details of the database followed by the database web address)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Everett Green, M.A. Ed. (1858) Calendar of State Papers Domestic: James I, 1611-18. James I – volume 61. pp.1-5. London: Stationery Office.

Example reference (online):

Everett Green, M.A. Ed. (1858) Calendar of State Papers Domestic: James I, 1611-18. [online] James I – volume 61. pp.1-5. London: Stationery Office. Available at: British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/domestic/jas1/1611-18/pp1-5 [Accessed 7 July 2015].

Example quotation:

“Grant to John Turnbull, servant to the late Princess Royal, of a pension of 100/. a year” (Everett Green, 1858, p.137).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

We see in state papers documented by Everett Green (1858) that a pension was granted to a servant of the princess.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

We see in state papers that a pension was granted to a servant of the princess (Everett Green, 1858).

If you use some of your own original work that has previously been submitted as part of the requirements for another module or course, you must include a citation and a reference.

The reference should include the following:

  • Your surname, followed by a comma and your initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year submitted, in round brackets (if not known, put ND)
  • Title or brief description of the assignment, in plain text, followed by a full-stop
  • The words unpublished coursework in [square brackets]
  • The words Submitted for, followed by a colon
  • The module code and module title in italics, followed by a full-stop (if not known give brief details of the module/course)
  • The name of the institution attended, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Riley, R. (2015) Comparison of learning theories. [unpublished coursework] Submitted for: PYP5532 Work Based Research. Leeds Trinity University.

Example quotation:

"This reward system produced results as predicted" (Riley, 2015, p.3).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Work submitted by Riley (2015) highlights the differences between these theories.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Recent work highlights the differences between these theories (Riley, 2015).

A reference should include:

  • Name of the company who developed the game/program, followed by a full-stop (if the developer is a named individual use the surname and initial format)
  • Year of publication or update in (round brackets)
  • Title of the game/program, in italics,
  • The word game or program in [square brackets]
  • Details of device or console the game has been produced for/is played on (if applicable)
  • Place of publication if available, followed by a colon
  • Name of publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put the word [online] or [downloaded] in the square brackets before game/program
  • After the publishing company details the words available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (disc version):

Double Eleven Limited (2015) Goat Simulator. [game] Xbox One. Double Eleven Limited.

Example quotation:

“You no longer have to fantasize about being a goat, your dreams have finally come true” (Double Eleven Limited, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Pretend to be a goat and get points for causing mayhem in this game by Double Eleven Limited (2015).

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

One game gives you the opportunity to pretend to be a goat and get points for causing mayhem (Double Eleven Limited, 2015).

A reference should include:

  • Surname of the author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Year in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the conference paper in plain text, followed by a full-stop
  • In, followed by a colon
  • Surname of the editor(s), followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop. If no editors are obvious, use conference title
  • Ed. or Eds. followed by a full-stop
  • Title of the conference in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Place and date of conference, separated by commas, followed by a full-stop
  • Page numbers, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (if available), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • [online] in square brackets after the conference title
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (if accessed via the Library webpage include the words Leeds Trinity University Library after the colon and before the web address)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Clarke, P. (2010) Eco-capability – preparing the ground for sustainable living. In: Inman, S. and Rogers, M. Eds. Education of hope: the impact of ESD/GC on the well being of teachers and young people. 2010 Conference Proceedings. London, 15 July. pp. 64-69. London: UK TE ESD/GC Network.

Example quotation:

“A curriculum for sustainability can only arise through practical actions that are focused on ecological principles” (Clarke, 2010, p.64).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Clarke (2010) argues that sustainability is a necessity.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Sustainability is a necessity (Clarke, 2010).

Conference papers - available online but not included in proceedings

A reference should include:

  • Surname of the author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the conference paper (in plain text), followed by a full-stop
  • The words Paper presented at followed by the title of the conference, in italics and the location of the conference,
  • [online] in square brackets
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address (if accessed via the Library webpage include the words Leeds Trinity University Library after the colon and before the web address)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Lopes, A.P. (2011) Teaching with Moodle in Higher Education. Paper presented at the 5th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain. [online] Available at: http://recipp.ipp.pt/bitstream/10400.22/622/1/TEACHFinal.pdf [Accessed 2 May 2015].

A reference should include:

  • Surname of each editor in the order they appear, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop. Use and to link the last two editors. If no editors are obvious, use the conference title
  • Ed. or Eds., followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in round brackets, followed by a full-stop (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the conference in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Place and date of conference, separated by commas, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (if available), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company (if available), followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • [online] in square brackets after the conference title
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (if accessed via the Library webpage include the words Leeds Trinity University Library after the colon and before the web address)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Inman, S. and Rogers, M. Eds. (2010) Education of hope: the impact of ESD/GC on the well being of teachers and young people. 2010 Conference Proceedings. London, 15 July. London: UK TE ESD/GC Network.

Example reference (online):

Inman, S. and Rogers, M. Eds. (2010) Education of hope: the impact of ESD/GC on the well being of teachers and young people. 2010 Conference Proceedings. London, 15 July. London: UK TE ESD/GC Network. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 20 March 2015].

Example quotation:

“Student engagement is imperative if we are to challenge the status quo” (Inman and Rogers, 2010, p.34).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Inman and Rogers (2010) highlight the need to inspire students to bring about change.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

The need to inspire students to bring about change has been highlighted (Inman and Rogers, 2010).

You are advised to check with your tutor for guidance on what you may include from personal conversations. It is important to check with the other parties involved that they agree with any part of the conversation being referred to.

Personal conversations are only cited in your text. You do not need to include details in your reference list as the information cannot be retrieved by others. You should include the initials and surname of the person involved and the date and year (if known, otherwise use ND) that the conversation took place.

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

D. L. Turner (personal conversation, August 12, 2016)

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

(D.L. Turner, personal conversation, August 12, 2016)

This example is for referencing a diary as a primary source, e.g. a diary held in an archive or museum.

A reference should include:

  • Surname of the author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Date/s of the diary in round brackets
  • Title of the diary in italics, followed by a full stop. If there is no formal title, put Diary of, followed by the name of the author, then a full stop
  • [Diary] in square brackets
  • The words Held at, followed by a colon
  • The city, followed by a colon, and name of the institution that holds the diary, e.g. a museum or archive, followed by a full stop
  • If available, a reference number for the diary (as used by the museum, archive etc), followed by a full stop
  • If accessed online:

     

  • [Diary-online] in square brackets after the conference title
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Bundy, A. E. (1916-19) Diary of Major A. E. Bundy. [Diary] Held at: London: Imperial War Museum. P.371.

Example reference (online):

Bundy, A. E. (1916-19) Diary of Major A. E. Bundy. [Diary-online] Available at: War diaries from the Imperial War Museum: the Great War www.britishonlinearchives.co.uk [Accessed 20 January 2017]. P.371.

Example quotation:

“Wondered whether I should see England and home again” (Bundy, 1916-19, p.6).

Example direct citation:

Bundy (1916-19) recorded his WWI experiences in a diary.

Example indirect citation:

His WWI experiences were recorded in a diary (Bundy, 1916-19).

 

A reference for a dictionary entry should include the following:

  • Surname of author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop. If an editor is named use this with Ed./Eds. after. If no author/editor is obvious, use the title of the dictionary
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the dictionary, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Title of the entry, in plain text and single quotation marks, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details, if NOT the first edition
  • If the dictionary has been revised by another writer put the words Revised by, followed by their initials and surname
  • Place of publication (if available), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company (if available), followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] in square brackets after the title of the dictionary
  • After publishing company type Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (if in e-book format see that section of this guide for more information)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Stevenson, A. and Waite, M. Eds. (2011) Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 'Plagiarise'. 12th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Example reference (e-book):

Stevenson, A. and Waite, M. Eds. (2011) Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 'Plagiarise'. [online] 12th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 25 May 2016].

Example quotation:

“Plagiarise – take the work or an idea of someone else and pass it off as one’s own” (Stevenson and Waite, 2012, p.1095).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

This is the definition in a recent edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary edited by Stevenson and Waite (2012).

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is the definition in a recent edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary (Stevenson and Waite, 2012).

You may need to include a copy of the email in an appendix so that your tutor can verify the information. Remember to block out email addresses to maintain confidentiality and avoid any unwarranted correspondence being sent. A reference for an email should include the following:

  • Surname of the sender, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Year the email was sent in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Subject line or short description in italics, followed by a full stop
  • Medium, i.e. email, [in square brackets]
  • The words Sent to, followed by the recipient's first name and surname, followed by a comma
  • The date and month the email was sent, followed by a full stop.

Example reference:

Bracken, L. (2015) Help with referencing. [email] Sent to Louise Turner, 7 May.

Example quotation:

“Any advice you can offer would be greatly appreciated” (Bracken, 2015, para. 2).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The correspondence from Bracken (2015) illustrates that students are willing to ask for help with their academic work.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Students are willing to ask for help and will often email staff to make appointments (Bracken, 2015).

A reference for an encyclopaedia entry should include the following:

  • Surname of author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop. If an editor is named use this with Ed./Eds. after. If no author/editor is obvious, start with the title of the entry
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the encyclopaedia, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Title of the entry, in plain text and single quotation marks, followed by a full-stop
  • Volume details if applicable, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details, if NOT the first edition, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (if available), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company (if available), followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] in square brackets after the title of the entry
  • After publishing company type Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (if in e-book format see that section of this guide for more information)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Unsworth, W. Ed. (1975) Encyclopaedia of mountaineering. 'Crampons'. London: Robert Hale & Company.

Example reference (e-book)

Unsworth, W. Ed. (1975) Encyclopaedia of mountaineering. 'Crampons' [online] London: Robert Hale & Company. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 25 May 2016].

Example quotation:

"Are used for climbing snow and ice" (Unsworth, 1975, p. 70).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

This is the definition in a mountaineering encyclopaedia edited by Unsworth (1975).

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is the definition in a mountaineering encyclopaedia (Unsworth, 1975).

A reference should include:

  • Name of author/institution/committee, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of document in italics and official number if available, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher details (this is often the author institution), where available, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online include the following:
  • [Online] in square brackets after the chapter number
  • After the publisher details (or title if no publisher details are obvious) the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (i.e. web address or name of database, i.e. Westlaw)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

European Commission. (2018) Proposal for a council regulation establishing a European Instrument for nuclear safety complementing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument on the basis of the Euratom Treaty (COM(2018) 462 final). Brussels: European Commission.

Example reference (online via Westlaw database):

European Commission. (2018) Proposal for a council regulation establishing a European Instrument for nuclear safety complementing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument on the basis of the Euratom Treaty (COM(2018) 462 final). [online] Brussels. Available at: Westlaw [Accessed 6 August 2018].

Example quotation:

The European Instrument for Nuclear Safety is designed "to promote the establishment of effective and efficient nuclear safety standards” (European Commission, 2018).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The European Commission (2018) established this recently.

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

This was established recently (European Commission, 2018)

A reference for a Facebook post should include the following:

  • Surname of the author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop. If the post is from the Facebook page of an organisation, treat the organisation as the author
  • Year of publication in (round brackets)
  • Give a short description of the post, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • In [square brackets] the word Facebook
  • Date and month and time (using the 24 hour clock) the post was published, followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • After the web address, in [square brackets] the word Accessed and the date, followed by a full-stop
  • If your reference is for a comment on a Facebook post:
  • Treat the commenter as the author
  • Put the words Facebook comment in the square brackets after the blog title

Example reference:

Leeds Museums and Galleries. (2015) A day of glamour at Lotherton Hall. [Facebook] 8 June, 11:14. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/LeedsMuseumsandGalleries?fref=nf [Accessed 18 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Open until 31 Dec 2015, Age of Glamour was the debut exhibition in Lotherton Hall’s brand new Fashion Galleries” (Leeds Museums and Galleries, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Leeds Museums and Galleries (2015) offered an insight into the fashions of the past with their recent exhibition.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A recent exhibition offered an insight into the fashions of the past (Leeds Museums and Galleries, 2015).

Broadcast on television

A reference for a film broadcast on television should include the following:

  • Title of the film, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of original release in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Put (Dir.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [film – television broadcast] in square brackets
  • Channel, followed by a comma
  • Date and month and year of broadcast, followed by a full-stop
  • Time of broadcast (using 24 hour clock), followed by a full stop
  • Duration in minutes, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Far and away. (1992) Howard, R. (Dir.) [film – television broadcast] Channel 5, 5 May, 2015. 23:00. 160 mins.

Example quotation (dialogue):

“If he bumps into Mr McGuire up there, tell him I want my spoons back” (Far and away, 1992).

Example direct citation (when referring to a specific scene or technique):

Howard demonstrates this technique in the film Far and away (1992).

Example indirect citation (when referring to a specific scene or technique):

This technique is demonstrated by Howard (Far and away, 1992).

Films - DVD

A reference for a film on DVD should include the following:

  • Title of the film in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of release of the DVD (may be different from film release date) in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Put (Dir.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [film – DVD] in square brackets
  • Place of distribution, followed by a colon
  • Distribution company, followed by a full stop
  • Number of disc if more than one
  • Duration (in minutes), followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace. (2001) Lucas, G. (Dir.) [film – DVD] Los Angeles: Twentieth Century Fox. Disc 1. 131 mins.

Example quotation (dialogue from specific scene or chapter):

They must be important if the Viceroy sent one of those useless protocol gearheads to greet them (Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace 2001, Disc 1, Ch.1)

Example direct citation (referring to the film as a whole):

We see evidence of this technique in the film Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace (2001, Disc 1).

Example indirect citation (referring to the film as a whole):

We see evidence of this technique in the film (Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace, 2001, Disc 1).

Example direct citation (referring to a specific scene or chapter):

Lucas demonstrates this technique in the film Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace (2001, Disc 1. Chapter 3).

Example indirect citation (referring to a specific scene or chapter):

This technique is demonstrated in the film by Lucas (Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace 2001, Disc 1. Chapter 3).

Films - Additional/Bonus material - DVD

Some films in DVD format are accompanied by additional material, such as deleted scenes, documentaries and commentaries on the film. A reference for this additional material should include the following:

  • Title of the film in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of release in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Put (Dir.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [film – DVD] in square brackets
  • Place of distribution, followed by a colon
  • Distribution company, followed by a full stop
  • Number of disc if more than one
  • Details of additional/bonus material (if commentary include surname of the commentator(s), followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a comma and the word ‘commentary’, followed by a full-stop)
  • Duration (in minutes), followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace. (2001) Lucas, G. (Dir.) [film – DVD] Los Angeles: Twentieth Century Fox. Disc 2. Deleted scenes documentary. 131 mins.

Example direct citation (referring to additional/bonus material):

Several scenes end up being cut in this way as demonstrated in Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace (2001, Disc 2. Deleted scenes documentary).

Example indirect citation (referring to additional/bonus material):

Several scenes end up being cut in this way (Star Wars: episode 1. The Phantom Menace, 2001, Disc 2. Deleted scenes documentary).

Films - Online archive of off-air recordings (i.e Box of Broadcasts)

A reference for a film made available via an online archive of off-air recordings should include the following:

  • Title of the film, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of original release in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Put (Dir.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [film – online off-air recording] in square brackets
  • Name of channel followed by a comma
  • Date, month and year of broadcast, followed by a full-stop
  • Time of broadcast, (using 24 hour clock), followed by a full stop
  • Duration (in minutes), followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the name of the online archive
  • Web address of online archive
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Far and away. (1992) Howard, R. (Dir.) [film – online off-air recording] Channel 5, 5 May, 2015. 23:00. 160 mins. Available at: BoB National http://bobnational.net/record/292340 [Accessed 6 May 2015].

Example direct citation:

This technique is demonstrated in the film Far and away (1992).

Example indirect citation:

This technique is demonstrated in the film (Far and away, 1992).

These are publications produced by or for the government and its departments. Green Papers provide information on proposed policies and legislation and are made available to people inside and outside Parliament so that they may give feedback. White Papers set out the government’s plans for future legislation, they can sometimes be published as Command Papers. Command Papers are presented to Parliament “by command of His/Her Majesty” and are numbered in sequence (Parliament UK, ND).

Some government/official publications are referred to by the name of the chair of the committee responsible for the report. The full title of the report should always be used in your reference but you can also include the more popular title in brackets after the official title if you wish.

Government sponsored reports, Green, White and Command Papers

A reference for a Green, White or Command Paper should include the following:

  • Name of the department/organisation (or details of Department Minister/Secretary of State presenting the paper) followed by a full stop
  • Year of release in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the paper in italics, followed by a full stop
  • Paper number (where available), followed by a full stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a comma
  • Publishing company followed by a full stop
  • If available online include:
  • Online in [square brackets] after title
  • After publishing company details, the words Available at, followed by a colon
  • Web address
  • Access date in [square brackets], followed by a full stop

Example reference (print):

Department for Education. (2011) Support and aspiration: a new approach to special educational needs and disability. A consultation. Cm8027. London: The Stationery Office.

Example reference (online):

Department for Education. (2011) Support and aspiration: a new approach to special educational needs and disability. A consultation. [online] Cm8027. London: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eorderingdownload/green-paper-sen.pdf [Accessed 6 May 2015].

Example quotation:

“The system doesn’t always work in the way it should” (Department for Education, 2011, p. 9).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

A paper written by the Department for Education (2011) suggests that it can be difficult for families to obtain the support they need.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It can be difficult for families to obtain the support they need (Department for Education, 2011).

Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)

A reference for a parliamentary debate should include the following:

  • Hansard, followed by a colon
  • House of Commons/House of Lords, followed by a full stop
  • Year in round brackets
  • Subject of the debate in italics, followed by a fullstop
  • Type of session in [square brackets]
  • Date and month, followed by a comma
  • Volume number and part (in round brackets), followed by a comma
  • Column number (prefixed with c or cc if more than one column), followed by a full stop
  • If available online include:
  • [Online] in square brackets after the type of session
  • After column number, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access date, in square brackets, followed by a full stop

Example reference (print):

Hansard: House of Commons. (2015) British influence in the world. [debate] 3 March, 593(117), cc803-804.

Example reference (online):

Hansard: House of Commons. (2015) British influence in the world. [debate - online] 3 March, 593(117), cc803-804. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmhansrd/cm150303/debtext/150303-0001.htm#150303103000020 [Accessed 6 May 2015].

Example quotation:

“Despite the very tight spending environment, this Government have since 2010 opened nine new diplomatic missions in emerging countries and fast-growing economies and upgraded a further six posts” (Hansard, 2015, para.2).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Hansard (2015) illustrates how local MPs are concerned with global issues.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Parliamentary debates illustrate how local MPs are concerned with global issues (Hansard, 2015).

Select Committee Reports

Select Committees report on a variety of areas, including governmental departments, public bodies and the European Union.

A reference for a Select Committee Report should include the following:

  • Name of committee, followed by a full stop
  • Year in round brackets
  • Title of report in italics, followed by a full stop
  • HC (House of Commons) or HL (House of Lords) number, followed by a full stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher, followed by a full stop
  • If available online include:
  • [Online] in the square brackets after the title
  • After publisher, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access date, in square brackets, followed by a full stop

Example reference (print):

Yorkshire and the Humber Regional Committee. (2010) The work of Yorkshire Forward. HC75. London: The Stationery Office.

Example reference (online):

Yorkshire and the Humber Regional Committee. (2010) The work of Yorkshire Forward. [online] HC75. London: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmyork/75/75.pdf [Accessed 30 April 2015].

Example quotation:

“During our inquiry we heard concerns that the role of Yorkshire Forward may not be widely understood by the general public” (Yorkshire and the Humber Regional Committee, 2010, p.3).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The Yorkshire and the Humber Regional Committee (2010) reported that the work of organisations like Yorkshire Forward was not fully appreciated by the region’s population.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

The work of organisations like Yorkshire Forward was not fully appreciated by the region’s population (Yorkshire and the Humber Regional Committee, 2010).

You are advised to check with your tutor for guidance on what you may include from interviews you have conducted as part of your research. It is important to check with the person being interviewed that they agree with any recording or transcript of the interview being referred to or made available. A written transcript may be included as an Appendix item in your work.

A reference for an interview should include the following:

  • Surname of the interviewee, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Year the interview was conducted (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of interview or short description in italics, followed by a full stop
  • [personal/radio/television interview] in square brackets
  • The words Interviewed by, followed by the interviewer's first name and surname, followed by a comma
  • The location, date and month of the interview, followed by a full stop
  • If from a radio or television broadcast
  • After the name of the interviewer, include the name of channel, followed by a comma
  • The date and month, followed by a comma
  • The time of the broadcast (using 24 hour clock), followed by a full stop
  • If accessed online:
  • After the title or description, include [online] in square brackets
  • After the time, Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (personal):

Easton, E. (2014) Use of social media. [personal interview] Interviewed by Zoe West, Leeds 26 May.

Example reference (online radio broadcast):

Easton, E. (2014) Use of social media. [radio interview-online] Interviewed by Zoe West. Radio Horsforth, 26 May, 17:30. Available at: www.radiohorsforth.com [Accessed 25 June 2014].

Example quotation:

“This group of people use things like Twitter to stay connected” (Easton, 2014).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Easton (2014) stated that Twitter is a popular communication tool for young people.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It has been suggested that Twitter is a popular communication tool for young people (Easton, 2014).

If an article has more than 2 authors or no obvious author, follow the guidelines in the ‘General Rules’ section at the beginning of this guide for advice on what to include in your citation and reference.

A reference for a journal article should include the following:

  • Surname of the author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the article in plain text, followed by a full-stop
  • Full title of the journal in italics, followed by a comma
  • Volume number
  • Issue/part number (where available) in round brackets, followed by a comma
  • Page numbers using p. or pp., followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • [online] in square brackets after the title of the journal
  • After the page numbers, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Caffrey, L. (2013) Hearing the ‘voice of the child’? The role of child contact centres in the family justice system. Child and Family Law Quarterly, 25(4), pp.357-379.

Example reference (electronic via Library search on the library website):

Caffrey, L. (2013) Hearing the ‘voice of the child’? The role of child contact centres in the family justice system. Child and Family Law Quarterly, [online] 25(4), pp.357-379. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 4 April 2015].

Example reference (electronic via a subject database):

Caffrey, L. (2013) Hearing the ‘voice of the child’? The role of child contact centres in the family justice system. Child and Family Law Quarterly, [online] 25(4), pp.357-379. Available at: JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/ [Accessed 14 June 2012].

Example reference (electronic freely available online):

Caffrey, L. (2013) Hearing the ‘voice of the child’? The role of child contact centres in the family justice system. Child and Family Law Quarterly, [online] 25(4), pp.357-379. Available at: http://www.freejournals.com [Accessed 14 June 2012].

Example quotation:

“Within the family law arena, it is now generally accepted that the ‘voice of the child’ should be heard where proceedings concern the child’s future” (Caffrey, 2013, p. 357).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Caffrey (2013) extols the importance of listening to what children want.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It is important to listen to what children want (Caffrey, 2013).

When citing a legal case, it is necessary to state the names involved in the case and details of where the report of the case can be found (here you will find a list of legal abbreviations). When citing the case for the first time give its name in full, any citations that follow can use a shortened version, e.g. the Nzolameso case (2015).

A reference for a legal case or law report should include the following:

  • Names of the parties involved in the case, separated by the letter v, in italics
  • Year the case was heard in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Volume number (if available)
  • Abbreviation for the name of the report
  • Page number, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online include the following:
  • Online [in square brackets]
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Nzolameso v City of Westminster (2015) UKSC 22.

Example reference (electronic):

Nzolameso v City of Westminster (2015) UKSC 22. [online] Available at: Lawtel https://www.lawtel.com [Accessed 18 May 2015].

Example quotation:

“There is a severe shortage of accommodation in Westminster and it is not reasonably practicable for us to offer a Westminster home for everyone who applies for one.” (Nzolameso v City of Westminster, 2015, p.3).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Nzolameso v City of Westminster (2015) demonstrates this.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is demonstrated in recent case law (Nzolameso v City of Westminster, 2015).

NB: You are advised to check with the lecturer that they agree to having any hand-outs included in a reference list.

Hand-outs often include extracts from books (i.e. chapters) or journal articles. If this is the case, you are advised to obtain the original and cite and reference that. If that isn't possible, follow the advice below.

A reference for lecture notes/hand-outs should include the following:

  • Surname of the lecturer, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Year in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title or brief description of the lecture/hand-out of the article in plain text, followed by a full-stop
  • Module code and Module title in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • [Lecture notes] or [Hand-out] in square brackets
  • Leeds Trinity University, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Williams, D., (2014) Play and development. ICE 7010 Child Development. [Lecture notes] Leeds Trinity University.

Example quotation:

“Play activities are essential to healthy development” (Williams, 2014).

Example direct citation:

Williams (2014) suggests this has a direct impact on child development.

Example indirect citation:

This has a direct impact on child development (Williams, 2014).

Letter (Personal)

You may need to include a copy of the letter in an appendix so that your tutor can verify the information.

A reference for a letter should include the following:

  • Surname of the sender, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Year the letter was sent in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Subject line or short description in italics, followed by a full stop
  • Medium, i.e. email, [in square brackets]
  • The words Sent to, followed by the recipients first name and surname, followed by a comma
  • The date and month the letter was sent (if known), followed by a full stop.

Example reference:

Tudor, D. (2014) Trip to Denmark. [letter] Sent to Lydia Smart, 28 August.

Example quotation:

“My dear Lydia, you simply must go!” (Tudor, 2014, p.1. para. 2).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The correspondence from Tudor (2014) illustrates that he encouraged the trip.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A letter received illustrates the encouragement to take the trip (Tudor, 2014).

Letter (from an archive)

A reference for a letter from an archive should include the following

  • Surname of the sender, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Year the letter was sent in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Subject line or short description in italics, followed by a full stop
  • [letter], in square brackets
  • The name of the archive followed by a full-stop
  • The name of the collection and archive reference number if known, followed by a full-stop
  • The date and month the letter was sent (if known), followed by a full stop.
  • If online:
  • [letter-online] in square brackets after the subject line or description
  • After the date and month the letter was sent put the words Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Thompson, A. (1875) Letter from Alice Thompson to Father William Lockhart. [letter] University of Leeds Special Collections. Elliot Collection, MS Meynell/1. February.

Example reference (online):

Bronte, C. (1850) Letter to Miss Alexander. [letter-online] University of Leeds Special Collections. BC MS 19c Bronte/C5/3. 18 March. Available at: https://library.leeds.ac.uk/special-collections-explore/27952 [Accessed 22 March 2016].

Example quotation:

“He asked and I said yes” (Thompson, 1875, p.2. para.3).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The correspondence from Thompson (1875) confirms that she was engaged.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A letter received confirms the engagement (Thompson, 1875).

A reference for a manuscript should include:

  • Surname, followed by a comma and initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Year in round brackets. If no date is obvious put ND or if the exact date isn’t clear you may can use c. for circa followed by an approximate publication date.
  • Title (or brief description if title not obvious) in italics
  • [Manuscript] in square brackets
  • The words Held at, followed by a colon
  • Place, followed by a colon
  • Details of organisation or institution where the manuscript was obtained/viewed
  • If available, a reference number for the manuscript (as used by the museum, archive etc), followed by a full stop
  • If accessed online:
  • After the title - [Manuscript–online] in square brackets
  • The words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Wharton, T. (1655) Directions for the prevention and cure of the plague. [Manuscript] Held at: London: The British Library. W1577 (Wing 2nd ed., 1994).

Example reference (online):

Wharton, T. (1655) Directions for the prevention and cure of the plague. [Manuscript-online] Available at: JISC Historical Texts https://data.historicaltexts.jisc.ac.uk/ [Accessed 22 May 2015]. W1577 (Wing 2nd ed., 1994).

Example quotation:

“But all fruits baked or thoroughly corrected by the fire, are better than raw” (Wharton, 1655, p.2).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Thomas Wharton (1655) recommended that fruit be cooked rather than eaten raw.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It was recommended that fruit be eaten cooked rather than raw (Wharton, 1655).

Manuscript reprinted in a book

For reprinted sources, when referencing them in the body of your essay you should provide both the original publication date and the date of the reprinted version that you actually read.

A reference for a manuscript reprinted in a book should include:

  • Surname and initials of the manuscript’s author followed by a full stop
  • Year the manuscript was originally published in round brackets
  • Title or description of manuscript in italics, followed by a full stop
  • The words Reprinted in, followed by a colon
  • Surname and initials of the book’s editor, followed by Ed. (for editor)
  • Year the book was published in round brackets
  • Title of book in italics followed by a full stop (include the edition if relevant)
  • Page numbers of the section in the book where the manuscript appears, followed by a full stop
  • Place of publication followed by a colon
  • Publisher followed by a full stop
  • For a manuscript reprinted in an e-book:
  • Add [e-book] in square brackets after the book title
  • After the publisher, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (i.e. web address)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in [square brackets], followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Perkins, W. (1608) A Discourse of the damned art of witchcraft. Reprinted in: Levack, B.P. Ed. (2015) The Witchcraft Sourcebook. 2nd ed. pp. 102-106. Abingdon: Routledge.

Example reference (e-book):

Perkins, W. (1608) A Discourse of the damned art of witchcraft. Reprinted in: Levack, B.P. Ed. (2015) The Witchcraft Sourcebook. 2nd ed. [e-book] pp. 102-106. Abingdon: Routledge. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://lib.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 24 January 2017].

Example quotation:

It was claimed “the Devil hath more easily and oftener prevailed with women than with men” (Perkins, 1608/2015, p.95).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Perkins (1608/2015) claimed women were more likely than men to practice witchcraft.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Women were seen as more likely than men to practice witchcraft (Perkins, 1608/2015).

A reference for a map should include the following:

  • Cartographer (usually an organisation, i.e. Ordnance Survey. If it is a personal author, use surname and initials), followed by a comma
  • Year in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of map in italics
  • map [in square brackets]
  • Series and number details if appropriate, followed by a comma
  • Scale, if appropriate, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher followed by a full-stop
  • If the map is online include:
  • [map-online] in square brackets after title
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Ordnance Survey, (2006) Leeds, Harrogate, Wetherby & Pontefract. [map] Explorer series, 289, 1:25000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Example reference (online):

Ordnance Survey, (n.d.) Leeds. [map-online]. Available at: https://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/osmaps/ [Accessed 19 May].

Example direct citation:

Ordnance Survey (2006) illustrate this in their map of Leeds and surrounding areas.

Example indirect citation:

This is illustrated in a map of Leeds and surrounding areas (Ordnance Survey, 2006).

Map - historical

The example below is for referencing a map as a primary source, e.g. a historical map held in an archive or museum.

A reference for a map should include the following:

  • Cartographer (may be an organisation, e.g. Ordnance Survey. If it is a personal author, use surname and initials), followed by a comma
  • Year in round brackets
  • Title of map in italics
  • [Map] in square brackets
  • Series and number details if appropriate, followed by a comma
  • Scale, if known, followed by a full-stop
  • The words Held at, followed by a colon
  • The city, followed by a colon, and name of the institution that holds the map, e.g. a museum or archive, followed by a full stop
  • If available, a reference number for the map (as used by the museum, archive etc), followed by a full stop
  • If the map is online include:
  • [Map-online] in square brackets after title
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Wyld, J. (1850) London and its environs: levels taken by order of the Commissioners of Sewers [Map] 1:17,400. Held at: London: British Library. BLL01016133799.

Example reference (online):

Wyld, J. (1850) London and its environs: levels taken by order of the Commissioners of Sewers [Map-online] 1:17,400. Available at: Old Maps Online http://www.oldmapsonline.org/ [Accessed 20 January 2017]. BLL01016133799.

Example direct citation:

Wyld (1850) created a map showing London’s water levels.

Example indirect citation:

Water levels in London can be seen on a map (Wyld, 1850).

A reference for a market research report accessed via Mintel, for example, should include the following:

  • Surname and of author, followed by a comma and their initials followed by a full-stop. If no author is obvious use the name of the company who produced the report (usually the database obtained from), followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the report in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Online in [square brackets]
  • Available at, followed by a colon and web address of the database
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full stop

Example reference:

Khanom, R. (2017) Men's facial skincare - UK. [online] Available at: Mintel https://academic.mintel.com/homepages/default/ [Accessed 28 May 2015].

Example quotation:

“The men's facial skincare category shows evidence of having reached its peak.” (Khanom, 2017).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The market report on male skincare by Khanom (2017) indicates this.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

The market report on male skincare indicates this (Khanom, 2017).

If you need to produce a citation and reference for information in microfiche/microfilm format follow the conventions in this guide for the original source (i.e. newspaper article).

After the title put the word microfiche or microfilm in [square brackets]. The example below is for a newspaper article, printed in the Daily Mail with no named author/byline.

Example reference:

Daily Mail, (1899) Dogs will enlist. [microfilm] 9 November, p. 3.

Example quotation:

“Dogs with their keen sense of smell could seek out those in need of assistance” (Daily Mail, 1899, p.3).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The Daily Mail (1899) reported on dogs enlisting.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

There were reports in the press on dogs enlisting (Daily Mail, 1899).

Links on Moodle are usually compiled by your tutor and often contain extracts from books (i.e. chapters) or journals (i.e. articles) and occasionally links to PowerPoint presentations.

For links to books and journal articles, you are advised to obtain the original and cite and reference that if you can but if this isn’t possible produce a citation and reference for the linked item with the information you have to hand.

If you wish to reference a PowerPoint presentation linked to from Moodle, the author in this case would be the lecturer who created and uploaded the presentation.

A reference should include the following:

  • Surname of the author/lecturer, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop. If no author is obvious, leave out and put the year after the title
  • Year in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the item in plain text, followed by a full-stop. If no title is obvious, write a short description of the item
  • Item type, i.e. book chapter, [in square brackets]
  • Module code and Module title in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • The words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Smith, R. (2017) American Slavery. [PowerPoint presentation - online] HIS5360 American Slavery.Available at: Leeds Trinity University. http://moodle.leedstrinity.net [Accessed 18 July 2017].

For quotations from PowerPoint presentations, indicate the number of the slide on which the quote can be found in your in-text citation.

Example quotation:

“American slavery didn’t develop in isolation” (Smith, 2017, slide 15).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Smith (2017) argues that it was essential for settlers to gain employment in agriculture in order to make ends meet.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It was essential for settlers to gain employment in agriculture in order to make ends meet (Smith, 2017).

CD/Vinyl

A reference for a recording on CD/Vinyl should include the following:

  • Composer/Artists/Group, followed by a comma
  • Year in (round brackets) (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of album in italics
  • CD or Vinyl [in square brackets]
  • Place of distribution (or location of record company headquarters), followed by a colon
  • Record company, followed by a full-stop
  • For a single track:
  • Include title of track in plain text after the year, followed by a full-stop
  • Include the word Track in the square brackets, e.g. [CD - Track]

Example reference (entire CD):

Miles Kane. (2011) Colour of the trap. [CD] New York: Columbia.

Example reference (single track):

Miles Kane. (2011) Rearrange. Colour of the trap. [CD - Track] New York: Columbia.

Example quotation (track lyrics)

“I’ll draw it on a wall for you all to see“ (Miles Kane, 2011).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

In the recording of his album, Miles Kane (2011) demonstrates this.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is demonstrated in the recording of the album (Miles Kane, 2011).

Download

A reference for a download should include the following:

  • Composer/Artists/Group, followed by a comma
  • Year in (round brackets) (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of album in italics
  • Download [in square brackets]
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop
  • For a single track on the download:
  • Title of track in plain text after the year, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (entire CD):

Miles Kane. (2011) Colour of the trap. [Download] Available at: http://www.apple.com/itunes/download/?id=366639665 [Accessed 2 March 2015].

Example reference (single track):

Miles Kane. (2011) Rearrange. Colour of the trap. [Download] Available at: http://www.apple.com/itunes/download/?id=3885222 [Accessed 23 March 2015].

Example quotation (track lyrics)

“I’ll draw it on a wall for you all to see“ (Miles Kane, 2011).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

In the recording of his album, Miles Kane (2011) demonstrates this.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is demonstrated in the recording of the album (Miles Kane, 2011).

Live performance

A reference for a live performance should include the following:

  • Name of artists/group or surname of composer (followed by a comma and their initial(s)) followed by a full-stop
  • Year of performance in (round brackets) (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of performance or tour (if applicable) in italics (if no title obvious, put Live Tour)
  • [Performance] in square brackets
  • If a performance by an orchestra put conductors first name and surname followed by (conductor) and the name of the orchestra
  • Place of performance, followed by a colon
  • Venue, followed by a comma
  • Day and month of performance, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Paul Weller. (2013) Forrest Live Tour. [Performance] Nottingham: Sherwood Pines, 14 June.

Example quotation (dialogue/lyrics):

“Being a musician is a noble profession” (Paul Weller, 2013).

Example direct citation:

This was evident in a recent live performance by Paul Weller (2013).

Example indirect citation:

This was evident in a recent live performance (Paul Weller, 2013).

Score

A reference for a score should contain the following:

  • Surname of composer, followed by a comma and their initial(s) followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in (round brackets) (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of score in italics
  • [Score] in square brackets
  • Edition (if not the first edition), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Lord, J. (2015) Boom of the tingling strings. [Score] Mainz: Schott Music.

Example direct citation:

Lord (2015) demonstrates this in his composition piano.

Example indirect citation:

This composition for piano demonstrates this (Lord, 2015).

Score from a collection

A reference for a score from a collection should include the following:

  • Surname of composer/songwriter, followed by a comma and their initial(s) followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in (round brackets) (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of score
  • [Score] in square brackets
  • In, followed by a colon
  • Surname of editor of the collection, followed by a comma and their initial(s), followed by a full-stop
  • Year collection was published (in round brackets), followed by a full-stop
  • Title of collection in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition (if not the first edition), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Bowie, D., and Pop, I. (1977) Lust for life. [Score] In: Day, R. (1996). Trainspotting. Woodford Green: International Music Publications Limited.

Example quotation:

“That’s like hypnotizing chickens” (Bowie and Pop, 1977)

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Bowie and Pop (1977) illustrate this in the lyrics for ‘Lust for life’.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is illustrated in the lyrics for ‘Lust for life’ (Bowie and Pop, 1977).

Sleeve notes

A reference for sleeve notes should include the following:

  • Surname of author, followed by a comma and their initial(s) followed by a full-stop
  • Year (round brackets) (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of sleeve notes or short description
  • In, followed by a colon
  • Title of the recording in italics
  • [CD/Vinyl - Sleeve notes] in square brackets
  • Title of collection in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of distribution (or location of record company headquarters), followed by a colon
  • Record company, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Middles, M. (1999) Booklet to accompany anniversary edition. [CD - Sleeve notes] In: The Stone Roses. London: Zomba Music Publishing Limited.

Example quotation:

“The Stone Roses formed in 1983 and released a handful of singles on several different labels” (Middles, 1999, p.2).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Middles (1999) argues that The Stone Roses were a pioneering group.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

It has been argued that The Stone Roses were a pioneering group (Middles, 1999).

 

NB: See the example further down the page if you are referencig a newspaper article with no byline/author.

A reference for a newspaper article with byline/author should include the following:

  • Surname of author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial. If more than one author include surname of each author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, in the order they appear. If there is no obvious author, or the article is an editorial, use the title of the newspaper followed by the date.
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the article in plain text, followed by a full-stop
  • Title of the newspaper in italics, followed by a comma
  • Date and month of publication, in plain text, followed by a comma
  • Page numbers, if available, followed by a full-stop. If page numbers are discontinuous, give all page numbers and separate them with a comma
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after the title of the newspaper
  • After the page numbers the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Grice, A. (2015) Labour voters were relieved we lost, says Harman. The Independent, Monday 8 June, pp.1, 4.

Example reference (online via LTU Library Website):

Grice, A. (2015) Labour voters were relieved we lost, says Harman. The Independent, [online] 8 June, pp.1, 4. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 9 June 2015].

Example reference (online via newspaper database):

Grice, A. (2015) Labour voters were relieved we lost, says Harman. The Independent, [online] 8 June, pp.1, 4. Available at: UK Press Online http://www.ukpressonline.co.uk/ [Accessed 10 June 2015].

Example reference (freely available online):

Grice, A. (2015) Labour voters were relieved we lost, says Harman. The Independent, [online] 8 June, p.1, 4. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/harriet-harman-interview-even-labour-supporters-were-glad-we-didnt-win-the-election-says-interim-10303562.html [Accessed 10 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Many people felt Labour was not talking to them because it raised issues such as zero hours contracts, the living wage and food banks” (Grice, 2015, p.1).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

A recent article by Grice (2015) puts forward the idea that voters lacked faith in the leadership of the opposition.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A recent article puts forward the idea that voters lacked faith in the leadership of the opposition (Grice, 2015).

Example reference no byline/author(print):

The Independent. (2015) Labour voters were relieved we lost, says Harman. Monday 8 June, p.1, 4.

Example quotation:

“Many people felt Labour was not talking to them because it raised issues such as zero hours contracts, the living wage and food banks” (The Independent, 2015, p.1).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

A recent article in The Independent (2015) puts forward the idea that voters lacked faith in the leadership of the opposition.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A recent article puts forward the idea that voters lacked faith in the leadership of the opposition (The Independent, 2015).

Occasional Papers are written to promote debate and further understanding of specific issues in any given field. They can be produced by government departments and public bodies, organisations or individuals and often undergo peer review prior to publication.

A reference for an occasional paper should include the following:

  • Surname of author(s), followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial. If more than one author include surname of each, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, in the order they appear. Use and to link the last two names together.
  • Year of publication in (round brackets) (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Name of associated organisation (if applicable), followed by a full-stop
  • The words Occasional Paper followed by number or series number (if available)
  • Place of publication (if available), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company (if available), followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after the paper number
  • After publishing company type Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (online):

Montgomery, S. and Grout, L. (1998) Student learning styles and their implications for teaching. The Centre for Research on Learning and Teaching (CRLT) Occasional Papers 10. [online] Michigan: University of Michigan. Available at: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/sites/default/files/resource_files/CRLT_no10.pdf [Accessed 25 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“A lecture class no longer entails simply a scripted delivery of information (no matter how well done), but it may also include a variety of ‘active learning’ techniques that truly engage students in the collective dialogue” (Montgomery and Grout, 1998, p. 1).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Montgomery and Grout (1998) have suggested this in their paper on the subject.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This has been suggested in a paper on the subject (Montgomery and Grout, 1998).

A reference for a Patent should include the following:

  • Surname of inventor(s), followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Name of company applying if available/relevant
  • Year of publication in (round brackets)
  • Title in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Patent number (or status if patent pending), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (if available), followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company (if available), followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after the title
  • After publishing company type Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

  • Chatwin, A. and Slater, S. (1905) Improvements relating to reamers. GB190423554 (A).

Example reference (online):

Chatwin, A. and Slater, S. (1905) Improvements relating to reamers. [online] GB190423554 (A). Available at: http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=12&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19050831&CC=GB&NR=190423554A&KC=A [Accessed 18 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“This invention relates to reamers and particularly to hand reamers of the fluted type as employed for finishing parallel holes or apertures in metal work very accurately to the required size” (Chatwin and Slater, 1905, p.2).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Improvements to reamers were invented by Chatwin and Slater (1905).

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Improvements to reamers were invented at this time (Chatwin and Slater, 1905).

A reference for a podcast should include the following:

  • Name of the broadcaster, author, presenter etc. (if referring to a named individual use the surname and initial format)
  • Year of publication in (round brackets)
  • Title of the episode/podcast, in plain text, followed by a full stop
  • Title of the series, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • The word podcast in [square brackets]
  • Date and month of the broadcast, followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

BBC Radio 4. (2015) Tattos at work. Thinking allowed. [podcast] 13 May. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05tlvb8 [Accessed 18 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Recruiters confessed to perceiving tattoos negatively” (BBC Radio 4, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The prejudice faced in the work place towards people with tattoos has been highlighted in a recent BBC Radio 4 (2015) podcast.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

People with tattoos have experienced prejudice in the work place (BBC Radio 4, 2015).

If a poem is in a book that has been written by the poet, use the information in the ‘books’ section for guidance on how to cite and reference. The following information is for poems within an anthology.

For conventions on the use of titles of plays, poems etc within your writing see the section on titles of books and other texts in General Rules. Humanities students may be required to follow strict conventions and should seek advice from departmental staff.

A reference for a poem within an anthology should include the following:

  • Surname of poet(s), followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year of publication in (round brackets)
  • Title of the poem in plain text, followed by a full-stop
  • The word In, followed by a colon
  • Surname of the editor, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial.
  • Ed./Eds., followed by a full-stop
  • Title of anthology in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details if NOT the first edition
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after the title of the anthology
  • After publishing company type Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (for more information see ‘Electronic Books’)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Fairfoot, J. (2012) Existential pizza. In: Drew, R. and Gillott, A. Eds. Pressed by unseen feet: an anthology of ghostly writing. Norwalk CT: Stairwell Books.

Example reference (electronic via LTU Library Catalogue):

Fairfoot, J. (2012) Existential Pizza. In: Drew, R. and Gillott, A. Eds. Pressed by unseen feet: an anthology of ghostly writing. [online] Norwalk CT: Stairwell Books. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library https://lib.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 25 May 2016].

Example quotation:

“Feel free to check the contents. We like you to get what you ordered” (Fairfoot, 2012, p.82).

Example direct citation:

We get a sense of this in the poem 'Existential pizza' by Fairfoot (2012).

Example indirect citation:

We get a sense of this in the poem 'Existential pizza' (Fairfoot, 2012).

When referencing plays it is important to include details of the edition (where applicable) and the editor(s) as their analysis can provide insight into the debate surrounding the work at that time and can make a difference to how a play is staged.

If you are referring to a printed publication of a play the emphasis in your citation and reference is on the author.

For conventions on the use of titles of plays within your writing see the section on titles of books and other texts in ‘General Rules’. Humanities students may be required to follow strict conventions and should seek advice from departmental staff.

A reference for a play should include the following:

  • Surname of playwright(s), followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year of publication in (round brackets)
  • Title of the play in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Edition details, if NOT the first edition, followed by a full-stop
  • Edited by, followed by the surname of the editor, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial (if applicable)
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after the title
  • After publishing company type Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (for more information see ‘Electronic Books’)
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Middleton, T. (1994) Women beware women. 2nd ed. Edited by Carroll, W.C. London: A&C Black (Publishers) Limited.

Example reference (electronic via Leeds Trinity University Library search):

Middleton. T. (1994) Women beware women. [online] 2nd ed. Edited by Carroll, W.C. London: A&C Black (Publishers) Limited. Available at: Leeds Trinity University Library http://library.leedstrinity.ac.uk [Accessed 14 June 2015].

If you refer to a specific line in a play you should include details of the act, scene and line in your in-text citation.

Example quotation:

“Well said! Good fortune to your birding then” (Middleton, 1994, 3.3:18).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Middleton (1994) demonstrates this.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A play written in the 90s demonstrates this (Middleton, 1994).

Performance

If you are referring to a public performance of a play the emphasis in your citation and reference is on the title of the play.

A reference for a performance of a play should include the following:

  • Title of the play in italics, followed by the word by
  • First name and surname of playwright, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of performance in (round brackets)
  • In [square brackets] the word performance
  • Surname of director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial.
  • The abbreviation Dir(s), followed by a full-stop>
  • Theatre company name (if applicable), followed by a full-stop
  • Place of performance, followed by a colon
  • Details of venue/theatre, followed by a comma
  • Day and month of performance, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

1984 by George Orwell. (2015) [performance] Icke, R. and Macmillan, D. Dirs. Headlong. London: Playhouse Theatre, 12 June.

Example quotation:

“Do it to Julia! Do it to Julia! Not me!” (1984, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Sam Crane gives an impressive performance as Winston in this production of 1984 (2015).

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Same Crane gives an impressive performance as Winston in this production (1984, 2015).

A reference for a press release should include the following:

  • Surname of author(s), followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the press release in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • [press release]
  • Date and month of the press release, followed by a full-stop.
  • If available online include the following:
  • The words [press release online] after the title
  • After the date and month, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • After the access details, the word Accessed and the date of access, in [square brackets], followed by a full-stop

Example Reference (online):

The Football Association. (2012) Roy looks towards St. George’s Park. [press release online] Saturday 22 September. Available at: http://www.thefa.com/England/News/2012/hodgson-lewington-sgp [Accessed 10 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Instead, he stressed that the development of coaches at the facility will help produce better players in the long term” (The Football Association, 2012).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The Football Association (2012) states a new breed of manager will be created at the training ground.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A new breed of manager will be created at the training ground (The Football Association, 2012).

A reference for a radio broadcast should include the following:

  • Title, in italics, followed by a full-stop. Or, if part of a series, episode title, in single quotation marks and in plain text, followed by a comma.
  • Main series title, in italics (if applicable), followed by a full stop
  • Series and Episode details, in plain text (if applicable), followed by a full-stop
  • Year of broadcast in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the producer, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Put (Prod.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [radio broadcast] in square brackets
  • Channel, followed by a comma
  • Date and month of broadcast, followed by a comma
  • Time of broadcast (using 24 hour clock), followed by a full stop
  • Duration, in minutes, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

‘Cedric the Gnome’, It’s a fair cop. Series 3, Episode 3. (2017) Vernon-Smith, A. (Prod.). [radio broadcast] BBC Radio4, 14 June, 11:30. 30 mins.

If part of a series, your citation need only include the episode title and date.

Example quotation:

“When Police Scotland received a report of a poltergeist at work, not only were there paintings flying off the wall, but the caller also said the family’s pet chihuahua was levitating seven feet in the air.” (Cedric the Gnome, 2017).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Several scenes in Cedric the Gnome (2017) amused listeners.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Several scenes in a recent radio broadcast amused listeners (Cedric the Gnome, 2017).

Radio broadcast online (i.e. via iPlayer)

A reference for a radio programme listened to online via iPlayer (or equivalent) should include the following:

  • Title, in italics, followed by a full-stop. Or episode title if part of a series, in plain text, followed by a comma.
  • Main series title, in italics (if applicable)
  • Series and Episode details, in plain text (if applicable), followed by a full-stop
  • Year of original release in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the producer, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Put (Prod.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [radio broadcast – online] in square brackets
  • Name of platform accessed on, followed by a comma
  • Date, month and year of original broadcast, followed by a full-stop
  • Time of original broadcast, (using 24 hour clock), if available, followed by a full stop
  • Duration (in minutes), followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

‘Cedric the Gnome’, It’s a fair cop. Series 3, Episode 3. (2017) Vernon-Smith, A. (Prod.). [radio broadcast] BBC Radio4, 14 June, 11:30. 30 mins. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08tcnmr [Accessed 10 July 2017].

Citations as above.

Radio broadcast via online archive of off-air recordings (i.e. Box of Broadcasts)

A reference for a radio programme listened to via an online archive of off-air recordings should include the following:

  • Title, in italics, followed by a full-stop. Or episode title if part of a series, in plain text, followed by a comma.
  • Main series title, in italics (if applicable)
  • Series and Episode details, in plain text (if applicable), followed by a full-stop
  • Year of original release in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Put (Prod.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [radio broadcast – online off-air recording] in square brackets
  • Name of channel followed by a comma
  • Date, month and year of broadcast, followed by a full-stop
  • Time of broadcast, (using 24 hour clock), followed by a full stop
  • Duration (in minutes), followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the name of the online archive
  • Web address of online archive
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

‘Is your brain male or female’? Horizon. (2014) Bates, M. (Dir.). [television broadcast – online off-air recording] BBC2 Scotland, 1 October 2014. 02:00. 60 mins. Available at: Box of Broadcasts http://bobnational.net/record/243465 [Accessed 29 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Men are meant to be better at maths, women are better at reading” (Is your brain male or female?, 2014).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

‘Is your brain male or female’? (2014) discussed research that highlighted sex differences in how the brain works.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Research has highlighted sex differences in how the brain works (‘Is your brain male or female’?, 2014).

If a person is named on the title page of the report, treat him or her as the author. If there is no obvious author, treat the organisation or agency as the author.

A reference for a report by an organisation should include the following:

  • Name of the organisation (you may include the abbreviation in brackets after the organisation's full name), followed by a full-stop (or surname and initials of any named author(s))
  • Year of publication in (round brackets)
  • Title of the report, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after the title of the report
  • After publishing company type Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (named author):

Buchan, J., Seccombe, I. and Queen Margaret University. (2011) A decisive decade – mapping the future NHS workforce. London: Royal College of Nursing.

Example reference (online - organisation as author):

Royal College of Nursing (RCN). (2010) Dignity charter for RCN members. [online] London: Royal College of Nursing. Available at: http://www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/318633/003587.pdf [Accessed 20 June 2105].

Example quotation (named author):

“We only need to look at the recent history of the NHS to predict the consequences of workforce shortages” (Buchan, Seccombe and Queen Margaret University, 2011, p.2).

Example direct citation (paraphrase - organisation as author):

A charter produced by the Royal College of Nursing (2010) outlines the rights and responsibilities in relation to the way staff in the organisation treat each other.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase - named author):

It has been argued that changes to government policy impact on NHS staff numbers (Buchan, Seccombe and Queen Margaret University, 2011).

These include texts such as the Bible, Torah or Quran.

For conventions on the use of titles of plays, poems etc within your writing see the section on titles of books and other texts in ‘General Rules’. Humanities students may be required to follow strict conventions and should seek advice from departmental staff.

If you are quoting from or referring to a specific book within a sacred text include details of the book, Sura or chapter and verse within your in-text citation. Your reference only needs to give details of the text the specific book can be found in.

A reference for a sacred text should include the following:

  • Title, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Version, if applicable, in [square brackets]
  • Year of publication in (round brackets). (If no date is obvious put ND)
  • If the text has been translated put the words Translated by followed by the surname and initials of the translator(s),
  • Place of publication, followed by colon
  • Name of the publishing company, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online
  • Put [online] in square brackets before place of publication
  • Put the words Available at, followed by a colon
  • If freely available online put the web address. If accessed via Leeds Trinity University Library search follow the instructions given in ‘Electronic Books’
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

The Holy Bible: containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical books. [New Revised Standard Version, Anglicized edition] (1995) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Example quotation:

“Discovering this, Jonathan sent envoys to negotiate peace terms and the release of prisoners to him” (The Holy Bible, Maccabees 9:70, 1995).

Example direct citation (with reference to specific book):

In The Holy Bible (Maccabees 9:70, 1995) Jonathan sending ambassadors to make peace has been interpreted as…

Example indirect citation (with reference to a specific book):

Jonathan sending ambassadors to make peace (The Holy bible, Maccabees 9:70, 1995) has been interpreted as…

A reference for a Skype conversation should include the following:

  • Surname of the person making the Skype call, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop
  • Year the call was made in round brackets, (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Subject line or short description in italics, followed by a full stop
  • The words Skype conversation and name of person called, in [square brackets]
  • The date and month the call was made (if known), followed by a full stop

Example reference:

Firth, P. (2014) Election results. [Skype conversation with Amanda Hardy] 2 July.

Example quotation:

“It’s a shame so many people don’t use their vote” (Firth, 2014).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Firth (2014) talked of this in a conversation.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This was discussed in a Skype call (Firth, 2014).

Live Speech

A reference for a live speech should include the following:

  • Speaker's surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year the speech was delivered in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the speech (or description if not known) in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Date and month (if known), followed by a comma
  • Location of speech (if known), followed by a full-stop
  • For a speech broadcast on television or radio include:
  • Speaker's surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Title of speech (or description) in plain text, followed by a full-stop
  • After the title put [television broadcast] or [radio broadcast]
  • Title of programme, in italics
  • Channel, followed by a comma
  • Date and month of broadcast, followed by a comma
  • Time of broadcast (using 24 hour clock), followed by a full-stop
  • Duration in minutes, followed by a full-stop
  • For a transcript of a speech in a book include:
  • Speaker's surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year the speech was delivered, in round brackets (if no date obvious put ND)
  • Title of speech (or description) in plain text, followed by a full-stop
  • The word [transcript], followed by the word In and a colon
  • Surname and initials of the editor(s) of the book, followed by Ed(s), followed by a full-stop
  • Page numbers, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publishing company followed by a full-stop
  • NB: for a transcript in an electronic book follow the guidelines above and the guidelines for electronic books.
  • For a transcript or recording of a speech accessed online, set out as a live speech and include:
  • [transcript online] or [recording online] after the title
  • After location details, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details
  • After the access details the word Accessed, followed by the date in [square brackets], followed by a full-stop

Example reference (live speech):

Thatcher, M. (1980) You turn if you want to. This lady's not for turning. 10 October, Conservative Party Conference, Brighton.

Example reference (broadcast):

Thatcher, M. (1980) You turn if you want to. This lady's not for turning. [televison broadcast] 10 October, Conservative Party Conference, Brighton. Panorama, BBC1, 18 October, 21:00. 60 mins.

Example reference (transcript in a book):

Thatcher, M. (1980) You turn if you want to. This lady's not for turning. [transcript] In: Frobisher, M. Ed. (2010) Conservative Party Speeches: 1979-1990. pp. 45-51. London: Frobisher Press.

Example reference (transcript online):

Thatcher, M. (1980) You turn if you want to. This lady's not for turning. [transcript online] 10 October, Conservative Party Conference, Brighton. Available at: http://www.cfwd.org.uk/uploads/ThatcherSpeech.pdf [Accessed 30 March 2017].

Example quotation (live):

“In Europe we have shown that it is possible to combine a vigorous defence of our own interests with a deep commitment to the idea and to the ideals of the Community” (Thatcher, 1980).

NB: When quoting from a book include page numbers.

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Commitment to the European Community was evident in the speech delivered to the Conservative Party Conference by Thatcher (1980).

Example in-direct citation (paraphrase):

Commitment to the European Community was evident in the speech delivered to the Conservative Party Conference (Thatcher, 1980).

Also known as SIs, Statutory Instruments are a form of legislation. They enable an Act of Parliament to be brought into force or amended without a new act being passed.

A reference for a Statutory Instrument should include the following:

  • Title of the Statutory Instrument, including the year, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • The letters SI
  • The year enacted/came into force, followed by a forward slash and the number, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online include the following:
  • After the SI number, the word online [in square brackets]
  • After the publisher details, the words Available at: followed by a colon and the web address
  • After the access details, the word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Further Education Loans Regulations 2012. SI 2012/1818. London: The Stationery Office.

Example reference (online):

Further Education Loans Regulations 2012. SI 2012/1818. [online] London: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/1818/pdfs/uksi_20121818_en.pdf [Accessed 18 May 2015].

Example quotation:

“”Access to HE Diploma” means a qualification which is specifically designed to prepare persons for study at university” (Further Education Loans Regulations, 2012, part 1, p. 3).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The Further Education Loans Regulations (2012) demonstrate this.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is demonstrated in the Statutory Instrument laid before Parliament (Further Education Loans Regulations, 2012).

If you reproduce table data from any print or online source you need to produce a citation and a reference. Your reference and citation should follow the conventions for the information source the table is published in. Tables should be numbered and accompanied by a short description below the table. You should include the page number(s) where available.

Example reference (book – print)

Winters-Stone, K. (2005) Action plan for osteoporosis. Leeds: Human Kinetics.

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Table 1 illustrates the comparative advantages outlined by Winters-Stone (2005, p. 158).

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Table 1 illustrates the comparative advantages (Winters-Stone, 2005, p. 158).

Note: If you create a table yourself using information that you have created (data that you have collected through research, for example) and include it in your work you do not need to produce a citation or reference, but it should still be numbered and accompanied by a short description as per the instructions above. You should refer to it in the text by the table number you have assigned it.

Example:

Table 2 provides an example of…..

A reference for a telephone call should contain the following:

  • Surname of the person making the telephone call, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Year the telephone call was made in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Subject line or short description in italics, followed by a full stop
  • Medium and indication if a transcript or a recording, i.e. email, [in square brackets]
  • The word Contacting, followed by the recipients first name and surname, followed by a comma
  • The date and month the telephone call was made (if known), followed by a full stop.
  • If transcript or audio accessed online:
  • After the date, Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date accessed, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (online):

Nixon R. (1971) Killing of New York policemen. [telephone conversation - audio] Contacting J. Edgar Hoover, 26 May. Available at: http://nixontapes.org/jeh.html [Accessed 23 May 2015].

Example quotation:

“The national security information we seek is unlimited” (Nixon, 1971).

Example direct citation:

In a conversation with Hoover, Nixon (1971) lifted all limitations on information gathering at this time.

Example indirect citation:

Conversations at the time indicate that all limitations on information gathering were lifted (Nixon, 1971).

A reference for a television broadcast should include the following:

  • Title, in italics, followed by a full-stop. Or, if part of a series, episode title, in single quotation marks and in plain text, followed by a comma
  • Main series title, in italics (if applicable)
  • Year of broadcast in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Put (Dir.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [television broadcast] in square brackets
  • Channel, followed by a comma
  • Date and month of broadcast, followed by a comma
  • Time of broadcast (using 24 hour clock), followed by a full stop
  • Duration, in minutes, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Jonathan Strange and Mr Norrell. (2015) Haynes, T. (Dir.). [television broadcast] BBC1, 28 June, 21:00. 60 mins.

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Several scenes in Jonathan Strange and Mr Norrell (2015) were set in places familiar to many viewers.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Several scenes were set in places familiar to many viewers (Jonathan Strange and Mr Norell, 2015).

Television broadcasts online (i.e. via iPlayer)

A reference for a television programme viewed online via iPlayer (or equivalent) should include the following:

  • Title, in italics, followed by a full-stop. Or episode title if part of a series, in plain text, followed by a comma.
  • Main series title, in italics (if applicable)
  • Year of original release in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Put (Dir.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [television broadcast – online] in square brackets
  • Name of platform accessed on, followed by a comma
  • Date, month and year of original broadcast, followed by a full-stop
  • Time of original broadcast, (using 24 hour clock), if available, followed by a full stop
  • Duration (in minutes), followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

EastEnders. (2015) Jones, M. (Dir.). [television broadcast - online] BBC1 iPlayer, 26 June. 60 mins. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b060bwcg/eastenders-26062015 [Accessed 29 June 2015].

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

A recent episode of EastEnders (2015) attempted to highlight the complexities of adoption.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Television dramas have often attempted to highlight the complexities of adoption (EastEnders, 2015).

Television broadcasts via online archive of off-air recordings (i.e. Box of Broadcasts)

A reference for a television programme viewed via an online archive of off-air recordings should include the following:

  • Title, in italics, followed by a full-stop. Or episode title if part of a series, in plain text, followed by a comma.
  • Main series title, in italics (if applicable)
  • Year of original release in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Surname of the director, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop.
  • Put (Dir.) in round brackets, followed by a full stop
  • [television broadcast – online off-air recording] in square brackets
  • Name of channel followed by a comma
  • Date, month and year of broadcast, followed by a full-stop
  • Time of broadcast, (using 24 hour clock), followed by a full stop
  • Duration (in minutes), followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the name of the online archive
  • Web address of online archive
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

‘Is your brain male or female’? Horizon. (2014) Bates, M. (Dir.). [television broadcast – online off-air recording] BBC2 Scotland, 1 October 2014. 02:00. 60 mins. Available at: Box of Broadcasts http://bobnational.net/record/243465 [Accessed 29 June 2015].

If part of a series, your citation need only include the episode title and date.

Example quotation:

“Men are meant to be better at maths, women are better at reading” (Is your brain male or female?, 2014).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

‘Is your brain male or female’? (2014) discussed research that highlighted sex differences in how the brain works.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Research has highlighted sex differences in how the brain works (‘Is your brain male or female’?, 2014).

A reference for a thesis or dissertation should include the following:

  • Author’s surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial.
  • Year of publication/submission in (round brackets). (If no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Qualification level, followed by a full-stop
  • Name of Higher Education institution, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after the title
  • After name of Higher Education institution, the words Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

Cummins, C.P. (1990) The impact of acid conditions on the common frog. PhD. Open University.

Example reference (online):

Cummins, C.P. (1990) The impact of acid conditions on the common frog, Rana temporaria.[online] PhD. Open University. Available at: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=1&uin=uk.bl.ethos.276728 [Accessed 24 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Under acid conditions, tadpoles that had been raised in neutral water as embryos at first grew more slowly than tadpoles raised under acid conditions (Cummins, 1990, p.22).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Acid conditions have affected the common frog, as Cummins (1990) discusses.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Research has investigated how acid conditions have affected the common frog (Cummins, 1990).

A reference for a Tweet/Twitter post should include the following:

  • Surname of the author, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial, followed by a full-stop. If the post is from the Twitter account of an organisation, treat the organisation as the author
  • Year of publication in (round brackets). (If no date is obvious put ND)
  • Give a short description of the tweet, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • [Twitter] in square brackets
  • Date and month the tweet was published, followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop
  • If your reference is for a reply to a tweet:
  • Treat the person replying as the author
  • Put the words [reply to tweet] in the square brackets after the tweet description

Example reference:

LTU Library. (2015) Visit the Enquiry Point. [Twitter] 19 May. Available at: https://twitter.com/ltulibrary1 [Accessed 22 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“Find quality information in the library to improve your marks” (LTU Library, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

According to LTU Library (2015) a visit to the library will help you find trustworthy information.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Need to find trustworthy information, visit the library (LTU Library, 2015).

These can include resolutions, statements and reports.

A reference should include:

  • Name of author/institution/committee, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of publication in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of document in italics, full date (date and month) and official number if available, followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online include the following:
  • [online] in square brackets after the title/official number
  • After [online] the words Available at, followed by a colon and the access details (i.e. web address), followed by
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference (print):

UN Economic and Social Council. (2018) Transition of the Centre for Alleviation of Poverty through Sustainable Agriculture to an intergovernmental organization outside the United Nations system (11-16 May 2018, ESCAP/74/L.8).

Example reference (online):

UN Economic and Social Council. (2018) Transition of the Centre for Alleviation of Poverty through Sustainable Agriculture to an intergovernmental organization outside the United Nations system (11-16 May 2018, ESCAP/74/L.8). [online] Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/B18/006/57/PDF/B1800657.pdf?OpenElement [Accessed 4 August 2018].

Example quotation:

The resolution "encourages all members and associate members to support the new organization in shaping its objectives, programmes and activities” (UN Economic and Social Council, 2018).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

The UN Economic and Social Council (2018) established this recently.

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

This was established recently (UN Economic and Social Council, 2018).

A reference for a You Tube video should include the following:

  • Screen name or username, followed by a full-stop
  • Year of upload in (round brackets). (If no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the video, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • In [square brackets] the word online
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Cole and Marmalade. (2014) Cat logic. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K3p0EFtJIn8 [Accessed 29 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“It’s so shiny, I must destroy it” (Cole and Marmalade, 2014).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

A video uploaded by Cole and Marmalade (2014) attempts to provide insight into the behaviour of cats.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

An online video attempts to provide insight into the behaviour of cats (Cole and Marmalade, 2014).

Comment on a YouTube video

A reference for a comment on a You Tube video should include the following:

  • Screen/Username of commenter, followed by a full-stop
  • Year comment was made (in round brackets)
  • Re: in plain text, followed by title of video, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • The words online comment in [square brackets]
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Jennifer Isabella (2015) Re: Crazy Gymnastics! [online comment] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQXhKg8uJhk [Accessed 21 March 2017].

Example quotation:

"Great skill involved here"(Jennifer Isabella, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Jennifer Isabella (2015) mentions this in their comment.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

This is mentioned in a comment (Jennifer Isabella, 2015).

If there is no obvious author for a piece of information on a website, use the company/corporate name as the author. You can often find more information in any ‘About’ section.

A reference for a website should include the following:

  • Author’s surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial. If no author is obvious, use the company/corporate name
  • Year of publication/last update in (round brackets). (If no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • [online] in square brackets
  • If using author surname, include name of company responsible for the site (if known) followed by a full-stop
  • The words Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Coughlan, S. (2015) CBI head calls for GCSEs to be scrapped. [online] British Broadcasting Corporation. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-33190028 [Accessed 23 June 2015].

Example quotation:

“For too long we’ve just pretended to have an exam system that values vocational education, when in practice, exams have operated as stepping stones towards a university degree” (Coughlan, 2015).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

In a recent online article, Coughlan (2015) outlined the reasons given by employers for scrapping GCSEs.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

A recent online article outlined the reasons given by employers for scrapping GCSEs (Coughlan, 2015).

A reference for a Wiki entry should include the following:

  • Title of the wiki
  • Year the wiki entry was last modified in (round brackets). (If no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the article, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • [Wiki] in square brackets
  • Date and month the entry was last modified, followed by a full-stop
  • Available at, followed by a colon and the web address
  • The word Accessed and the date of access, in square brackets, followed by a full-stop

Example reference:

Psychology Wiki. (ND) Introduction to social psychology. [Wiki] Available at: http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Introduction_to_social_psychology [Accessed 4 August 2015].

Example quotation:

“Psychological social psychologists tend to take an interactional approach to human social behaviour which emphasizes factors both within the person and the immediate social situation” (Psychology Wiki, ND).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

An entry in Psychology Wiki (ND), states that many of our personal traits are shaped by our social interactions.

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Many of our personal traits are shaped by our social interactions (Psychology Wiki, ND).

These are sometimes known as discussion papers or briefing papers. The format for referencing them is similar to that used for a book.

A reference for a working paper should include the following:

  • Author’s surname, followed by a comma and their initials with a full-stop after each initial
  • Year of publication, in round brackets (if no date is obvious put ND)
  • Title of the paper, in italics, followed by a full-stop
  • Series and/or working paper number if available, followed by a full-stop
  • Place of publication (if known), followed by a colon
  • Publishing company (if known), followed by a full-stop
  • If accessed online:
  • Put [online] after title
  • After publishing company details put the words Available at, followed by a colon and access details
  • After access details put the word Accessed and the date of access in [square brackets], followed by a full-stop

Example reference (online):

Spaull, N. (2017) Who makes it into PISA?: Understanding the impact of PISA sample eligibility using Turkey as a case study (PISA 2003 –PISA 2012). [online] OECD Education Working Papers, No. 154. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/41d175fc-en.pdf?expires=1491922136&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=A04A10DD0F66720D9DBBDB13C244E1A5 [Accessed 11 April 2017].

Example quotation:

“New evidence presented in this paper suggests that existing accounts have underestimated both progress and inequity in Turkey” (Spaull, 2017).

Example direct citation (paraphrase):

Reforms in Turkey have had an impact on attainment, as argued by Spaull (2017).

Example indirect citation (paraphrase):

Reforms in Turkey have had an impact on attainment (Spaull, 2017).