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A-Z of APA referencing examples

APA 7th Referencing Guide

This is the Leeds Trinity University Library guide to APA 7th, the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association (APA). For best results, view this page in full screen. 

Need help with DOIs? Watch a short video explaining DOIs and how to use them in references.

For specific resource examples please visit the A-Z of APA referencing examples page.

A-Z of APA examples

Select a resource type to view specific examples of APA referencing

You do not need to include Acts of Parliament in your reference list. All you need is an in-text citation with the title and year of the Act, and details of the specific section where appropriate.

Example in-text citations

The Finance Act 2015 demonstrates this.

Section 1 of the Finance Act 2015 demonstrates this.

Recent legislation demonstrates this (Finance Act 2015).

If you mention the name of an app in your work, but do not paraphrase or quote something from it, you do not need to reference it.

If the publisher is the same as the company, leave the publisher out of the reference.

Reference format

Company name. (Year). Name of app [Mobile application software] (Version number). Publisher. URL

Example full reference

Zinkia Entertainment. (2015). Pocoyo Disco [Mobile application software] (Version 1.4). https://play.google.cm/stone/apps/details?

id=com/zinkia.pocoyo_disco&hi=en_GB

Example in-text citations

The app Pocoyo Disco by Zinkia Entertainment (2015) lets you create your own music videos.

The app Pocoyo Disco lets you create your own music videos (Zinkia Entertainment, 2015).

A Bill is a proposal for a new law, or proposal to change an existing law, that is presented for debate before Parliament.

Reference format

House of Parliament. (Year). Title of Bill (Bill number). Publisher. URL.

Example full reference

House of Commons. (2013). Access to Mental Health Services Bill (106 2013-2014). Stationery Office. https://services.parliament.

uk/bills/2013-14/accesstomentalhealthservices.html

Example in-text citations

This is evident in the Access to Mental Health Services Bill (House of Commons, 2013).

The Access to Mental Health Services Bill was heard in the House of Commons (2013).

You should only reference a blog post if you are confident that it is a reliable academic source. If in doubt, ask your lecturer.

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of blog post. Title of blog. URL

Example full reference

Bak-Maier, M. (2019, March 23). Practical tips for overcoming the fear of failure - and success. Times Higher Education blog.

https://www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/practical-tips- overcoming-fear-failure-and-success

Example in-text citations

Bak-Maier (2019) studied the roots of imposter syndrome.

Imposter syndrome has many possible causes (Bak-Maier, 2019).

For guidance on multiple authors or editors, see Number of authors.

You only need to specify the edition of a book if it is the 2nd edition or later. This information is usually on the cover or title page of the book.

If the e-book or e-book chapter has a DOI, you can use this in the reference in place of the URL.

If the URL is very long or does not take you directly to the e-book, you can use the URL of the main website where the book can be found, e.g. https://www.vlebooks.com or https://scholar.google.co.uk.

E-book with author(s)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of book (Edition.). Publisher. URL

Example full reference

Howitt, D. (2018). Introduction to forensic and criminal psychology (6th ed.). Pearson. https://www.vlebooks.com

Example in-text citations

Howitt (2018) notes that forensic psychology is constantly evolving.

Forensic psychology is constantly evolving (Howitt, 2018).

E-book with editor(s)

Use this format for referencing an edited book, where each chapter is usually written by a different author.

This format is for referencing the whole book. If you want to reference a specific chapter, see Chapter in an edited e-book (below).

Reference format

Editor Surname, Initial. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book (Edition.) Publisher. URL

Example full reference

Manning-Morton, J. (Ed.). (2014). Exploring well-being in the early years. Open University Press. http://www.vlebooks.com

Example in-text citations

Manning-Morton (2014) studied wellbeing in young children.

Wellbeing is important even in young children (Manning-Morton, 2014).

Chapter in an edited e-book

Reference format

Author of chapter Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor of book Initial, Surname (Ed.), Title of book (edition, page numbers for whole chapter). Publisher. URL.

Example full reference

Dickins, M. (2014). Young childrens’ well-being in times of austerity. In J. Manning-Morton (Ed.), Exploring well-being in the early years (pp.44-53).

Open University Press. http://www.vlebooks.com

Example in-text citations

Dickins (2014) found that childrens’ wellbeing can suffer in times of austerity.

Childrens’ wellbeing can suffer in times of austerity (Dickins, 2014).

For guidance on multiple authors or editors, see Number of authors.

You only need to specify the edition of a book if it is the 2nd edition or later. This information is usually on the cover or title page of the book.

Book with author(s)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of book (Edition.). Publisher.

Example full reference

Howitt, D. (2018). Introduction to forensic and criminal psychology (6th ed.). Pearson.

Example in-text citations

Howitt (2018) notes that forensic psychology is constantly evolving.

Forensic psychology is constantly evolving (Howitt, 2018).

Book with editor(s)

Use this format for referencing an edited book, where each chapter is usually written by a different author.

This format is for referencing the whole book. If you want to reference a specific chapter, see Chapter in an edited book (below).

Reference format

Editor Surname, Initial. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book (Edition.). Publisher.

Example full reference

Holliman, A. J. (Ed.). (2014). The Routledge international companion to educational psychology. Routledge.

Example in-text citations

Holliman (2014) provides an international overview of educational psychology.

Educational psychology can vary between countries (Holliman, 2014).

Chapter in an edited book

Reference format

Author of chapter Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor of book Initial, Surname (Ed.), Title of book (edition, page numbers). Publisher.

Example full reference

Radley, A. (2015). Suffering. In M. Murray (Ed.), Critical health psychology (2nd ed., pp. 31-43). Palgrave Macmillan.

Example in-text citations

Radley (2015) explains various ways that people communicate suffering.

People communicate suffering in various different ways (Radley, 2015).

Republished or modern edition of a classic book

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year of new/republished edition). Title of book (Edition.). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Example full reference

Milgram, S. (2010). Obedience to authority (New ed.). Pinter & Martin. (Original work published 1974)

Example in-text citations

Milgram (1974/2010) was surprised by participants’ willingness to follow orders.

People can be surprisingly willing to follow orders (Milgram, 1974/2010).

Translated book

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title in English (Translator Initial, Surname, Trans.). Publisher.

Example full reference

Piaget, J. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.). Basic Books.

Example in-text citations

Piaget (1969) explains how children develop in several stages.

Children develop in several stages (Piaget, 1969).

If you mentioned a code or software in your text, but have not paraphrased or quoted from it, you do not need to reference it.

You must cite and reference any written code you have copied or adapted, even if it is freely available.

Computer code (from a book)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of book (Edition.). Publisher.

Example full reference

Flanagan, D. (2002). JavaScript pocket reference (2nd ed.). O’Reilly.

Example in-text citations

Flanagan (2002, pp. 34-35).

Computer code (from a website)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of webpage. Name of website. URL.

Example full reference

Hani, M. K. (2020, April 25). Java Jasper example. GitHub. https://githubcom./hmkcode/Java/commit/

dc0b1bcee3fa234288986fec7ee945ae040e16

Example in-text citation

Hani (2002)

(Hani, 2002)

Computer software

If no specific author is named, use the company name as the author.

If the publisher and the company name are the same, you do not need to list the publisher in the reference.

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title [Computer Software]. Publisher. URL.

Example full reference

Solid Solutions. (2021). Solidworks visualize [Computer Software]. https://www.solidsolutions.co.uk/solidworks/Visualize/Packa ges/default.aspx

Example in-text citation

This software enables the user to create professional content (Solid Solutions, 2021).

Solid Solutions (2021) software enables the user to create professional content.

Conference paper (online)

For online conference papers, the date should include the full dates of the conference if possible. This information should be available in the paper or online.

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Dates of conference). Title of paper [Conference presentation]. Name of conference, Location. URL or DOI.

Example full reference

Rossiter, J. A. (2019, December 16-17). Using computers for end of year examinations [Conference presentation]. UK and Ireland 7th Engineering

Education Research Network Annual Symposium, Warwick, UK. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/153449/.

Example in-text citations

Rossiter (2019) investigated the use of computers for end-of-year exams.

Computers have been used for end-of-year exams (Rossiter, 2019).

Conference paper (published in a book)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of paper. In Editor Initial, Surname (Ed.). Title of book (page numbers). Publisher.

Example full reference

Vanfraechem-Raway, E. (2005). Psychological relationship between trainers and young players: leadership aspects. In T. Reilly, J. Cabri & D. Araujo

(Eds.). Science and Football V: The proceedings of the Fifth World Congress on Science and Football (pp. 590-597). Routledge.

Example in-text citations

Vanfraechem-Raway (2005) studied relationships between trainers and players.

Relationships between trainers and players are important (Vanfraechem-Raway, 2005).

In this example the Author refers to the person who wrote the individual entry, while the Editor(s) refers to the editor(s) of the dictionary or encyclopaedia as a whole.

Dictionary or encyclopaedia entry (online)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of entry. In Editor Initial, Surname (Ed.), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia (Edition.). URL

Example reference

Downes, S. M. (2018). Evolutionary psychology. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/evolutionary-psychology/

Example in-text citations

Downes (2018) states that evolutionary psychology is informed by biology.

Evolutionary psychology is informed by biology (Downes, 2018).

Dictionary or encyclopaedia entry (print)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of entry. In Editor Initial, Surname (Ed.), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia (edition, page numbers of entry). Publisher.

Example full reference

Crittenden, P. M. (2008). Attachment theory. In G. J. Towl, D. P. Farrington, D. A. Crighton, & G. Hughes (Eds.), Dictionary of forensic psychology (pp.

11-13). Willan.

Example in-text citations

Crittenden (2008) notes that there are several versions of attachment theory.

There are several versions of attachment theory (Crittenden, 2008).

Dissertation or thesis (online)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis [Type of dissertation or thesis, Name of university]. Name of website. URL

Example full reference

Albor, C. (2011). Are poor people healthier in rich or poor areas?: The psychosocial effects of socioeconomic incongruity in the neighbourhood

[PhD thesis, University of York]. White Rose eTheses. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/1595/

Example in-text citations

Albor (2011) found a correlation between geographical living areas and health.

Health has been linked to geographical living area (Albor, 2011).

Dissertation or thesis (print)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis [Unpublished dissertation/thesis]. Name of university,

Example full reference

Jersakova, R. (2013). Exploring the effects of emotion on semantic memory retrieval monitoring [Unpublished PhD thesis]. University of Leeds.

Example in-text citations

Jersakova (2013) found a relationship between emotion and memory retrieval.

Emotion has been found to affect memory retrieval (Jersakova, 2013).

Reference format

Director Surname, Initial. (Director). (Year released). Title of film [Film]. Production company.

Example full reference

Coogler, R. (Director). (2018). Black Panther [Film]. Marvel Studios.

Example in-text citations

Coogler (2018) explores themes of royalty and succession in Black Panther.

Themes of royalty and succession are explored in Black Panther (Coogler, 2018).

Hansard is a record of UK parliamentary debates. Your reference should state whether the debate took place in the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

In your in-text citations, use the column number in place of a page number, as it helps to identify which specific part of the document you are referencing.

Reference format

Hansard. (Year, Month Date). House of Commons/Lords Debate (volume number), column number. URL

Example full reference

Hansard. (2015, March 3). House of Commons debate (593), col. 803. http://www.publications.parliament.

uk/pa/cm201415/cmhansrd/ cm150303/debtext/1503030001.htm#150303103000020

Example in-text citations

Hansard (2015, col. 803) illustrates how local MPs are concerned with global issues.

Parliamentary debates illustrate how local MPs are concerned with global issues (Hansard, 2015, col. 803).

The following advice is for any images you did not create yourself which you are using in your work. This might include photos, illustrations, charts, tables etc., which you found online, in a book, or elsewhere.

If the creator of the image is unknown, start the reference with the title (or short description if there is no title).

For any images you use in your work (e.g. as screenshots), include a figure number and the title (or a short description) below it as a caption. The caption should include an in-text citation for the source where you found the image (see example below).

Refer to the illustrations, images or photographs in your text by the figure number assigned to it, e.g. see Figure 1.

Include a full reference for the source of the image in your reference list.

Image from a website

If including the image in your work, give the image a figure number and use the following layout with a caption below.

Insert image here

Figure 1. Water molecule (BBC, 2021).

Reference format

Artist/photographer surname, Initial. (Year). Title of image [Type of image]. Website name. URL

Example full reference

BBC. (2021). Water molecule [Infographic]. BBC Bitesize. https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/z9r4jxs/articles/zkd3rwx

Example in-text citation

The BBC (2021) used an image of a water molecule (see Figure 1).

The image used on the Bitesize website (see Figure 1) illustrates this (BBC, 2021).

Image from a book

Reference format

Artist/photographer surname, Initial. (Year image created). Title of image [Type of image]. In Author surname, Initial. (Year of publication). Title of

book (page number). Publisher. URL (if an e-book)

Example full reference

McCartney, P. (1990). John’s room [Painting]. In McCartney, P. (2000). Paintings (p. 115). Little, Brown and Company.

Example in-text citation

Figure 2 is an example of artwork by McCartney (1990, p. 115).

Figure 2 is an example of his work (McCartney, 1990, p. 115).

Journal article (online)

If no DOI is available, use the URL instead. For more information see URLs and DOIs.

To format a DOI in a reference, use the prefix https://doi.org/ before the DOI number. See examples below.

For more information on volume and issue numbers, see What are journal volume numbers and issue numbers?

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers of whole article.

https://doi.org/10.xxx...

Example full reference

With DOI:

Miller, R. L. (2014). Community psychology, evaluation, and social critique. American Journal of Evaluation, 36(1), 89-99.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214014557694

With URL:

Miller, R. L. (2014). Community psychology, evaluation, and social critique. American Journal of Evaluation, 36(1), 89-99. http://aje.sagepub.com/

Example in-text citations

Miller (2014) studied the relationship between community psychology and evaluation.

Community psychology can influence evaluation (Miller, 2014).

Journal article (advance online publication)

Sometimes journal articles become available on the journal website before they appear in the print version of the journal. This means there is no volume number, issue number or page numbers to use in the reference. If no DOI is available, use the URL.

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.xxx...

Example full reference

Lee, S., & Barnes, C. (2020). An attributional process model of workplace gossip. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication.

https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000504

Example in-text citations

Lee and Barnes (2020) made a process model for workplace gossip.

Workplace gossip has multiple causes (Lee & Barnes, 2020).

Journal article (print)

Even if you read the journal article in print, it is recommended that you include the DOI for the online version of the article in the reference if possible. If there is no DOI, leave it out.

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. https://doi.org/10.xxx...

Example full reference

Miller, R. L. (2014). Community psychology, evaluation, and social critique. American Journal of Evaluation, 36(1), 89-99.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214014557694

Example in-text citations

Miller (2014) studied the relationship between community psychology and evaluation.

Community psychology has been found to have an influence on evaluation (Miller, 2014).

Journal article (translated to English)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Foreign language title of article [English language title of article]. Title of journal, volume number(issue number),

page numbers. https://doi.org/10.xxx...

Example full reference

Le Moigne, P. (2014). La santé mentale comme philosophie politique: La psychologie du soi et le progrès social [Mental health as political

philosophy: The psychology of the self and social progress]. L'Évolution Psychiatrique, 79(4), 683-695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evopsy.2013.05.001

Example in-text citations

Le Moigne (2014) discusses mental health as political philosophy.

Mental health has been linked to political philosophy (Le Moigne, 2014).

All judgments after 2001 have a neutral citation, a format independent of the publishing source which allows for immediate online publishing.

Via the following link you can find a list of legal abbreviations.

Neutral citation

Reference format

Case name (Year) Court abbreviation Number of case.

Example full reference

Nzolameso v City of Westminster (2015) UKSC 22.

Example in-text citations

Nzolameso v City of Westminster (2015) demonstrates this.

This is demonstrated in recent case law (Nzolameso v City of Westminster, 2015).

Report citation

Reference format

Case name (Year) Volume Law report abbreviation Page number.

Example full reference

Fisher v Bell (1961) 1 QB 394.

Example in-text citations

Fisher v Bell (1961) demonstrates this.

This is demonstrated in case law (Fisher v Bell, 1961).

Magazine article (online)

Some magazines use volume and issue numbers (similar to journals) which should be included in the reference. If the magazine does not use these numbers, leave them out.

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Article title. Magazine title, volume number (issue number). URL

Example full reference

Griffin, J. (2020, June). Supporting parent carers. The Psychologist, 33. https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-33/june-2020/supporting

-parent-carers

Example in-text citations

Griffin (2020) discussed emotional wellbeing in parents of disabled children.

Parenting disabled children can affect emotional wellbeing (Griffin, 2020).

Magazine article (print)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Article title. Magazine title, volume number (issue number), page numbers.

Example full reference

Griffin, J. (2020, June). Supporting parent carers. The Psychologist, 33, 28-31.

Example in-text citations

Griffin (2020) discussed emotional wellbeing in parents of disabled children.

Parenting disabled children can affect emotional wellbeing (Griffin, 2020).

Links on Moodle are usually compiled by your tutor and often contain book chapters, journal articles, and occasionally links to PowerPoint presentations.

For links to books and journal articles, you are advised to find the original version in order to reference it (e.g. by finding the full e-book for a book chapter). If this isn’t possible, produce a citation and reference for the linked item with the information you have available.

Powerpoint slides in Moodle

If you wish to reference a PowerPoint presentation linked from Moodle, the author in this case would be the lecturer who created and uploaded it.

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle Module code. URL

Example full reference

Smith, R. (2017). American History [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle HIS6500. http://moodle.leedstrinity.net

Example in-text citations

Smith (2017) argues that it was essential for settlers to gain employment in agriculture in order to make ends meet.

It was essential for settlers to gain employment in agriculture in order to make ends meet (Smith, 2017).

It is not necessary to specify how you listened to a musical recording (streaming, C.D etc.) but you should choose either album or single track as appropriate. Include the URL if that is the only way to access the recording (e.g. from a band’s website).

Album

Reference format

Recording artist surname, initial(s) or group. (Year). Title of album [Album]. Record label.

Example full reference

Kane, M. (2011). Colour of the trap [Album]. Columbia.

Example in-text references

In the recording of his album, Kane (2011) demonstrates this.

This is demonstrated in the recording of the album (Kane, 2011).

Single track

Reference format

Recording artist surname, initial(s) or group. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Record label.

Example full reference

The Prodigy. (1996). Breathe [Song]. On The Fat of the Land. X-L Recordings.

Example in-text reference

In the recording of their album, The Prodigy (1996) demonstrate this.

This is demonstrated in the recording of the album (The Prodigy, 1996).

Musical score

Reference format

Composer surname, initial(s) or group. (Year). Title (Editor or translator name if applicable) [Type of score]. Publisher.

Example full reference

Picker, T., and McClatchy, J. D. (1995). Emmeline: An opera in two acts [Study score]. Schott Music.

Example in-text references

In the recording, Picker and McClatchy (1995) demonstrate this.

This is demonstrated in the recording (Picker and McClatchy, 1995).

News article (online)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Article title. Name of website. URL

Example full reference

Weale, S. (2020, May 7). Prioritise play when schools reopen, say mental health experts. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com

/education/2020/may/07/prioritise-play-when-schools-reopen-say-mental-health-experts-coronavirus-lockdown

Example in-text citations

Weale (2020) argued that play should be a priority for children at school.

Play should be a priority for children at school (Weale, 2020).

News article (print)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Article title. Newspaper Title, page numbers.

Example full reference

Weale, S. (2020, May 7). Prioritise play when schools reopen, say mental health experts. Guardian, 15-16.

Example in-text citations

Weale (2020) argued that play should be a priority for children at school.

Play should be a priority for children at school (Weale, 2020).

Patent

Reference format

Inventor Surname, Initial. (Year of issue).Title (Patent No.). Issuing office. URL

Example full reference

Chatwin, A. and Slater, S. (1905). Improvements relating to reamers (Patent No. GB190423554). European Patent Office.

https://worldwide.espacenet.com

Example in-text references

Improvements to reamers were invented by Chatwin and Slater (1905).

Improvements to reamers were invented at this time (Chatwin and Slater, 1905).

Standard

Reference format

Organisation. (Year of issue). Title (Standard Number). URL

Example full reference

British Standards Institute. (2011). Graphical symbols. Safety colours and safety signs. Design principles for safety signs and safety markings (BS

ISO 3864-1:2011). http://shop.bsigroup.com/Prod uctDetail/?pid=000000000030197378 

Example in-text references

Specific graphic symbols and shapes should be used for safety signs, according to standards outlined by the British Standards Institute (2011).

Specific graphic symbols and shapes should be used for safety signs (British Standards Institute, 2011).

At times it may be necessary to reference personal communications if relevant (for example, when writing a more personal or reflective essay). These may include: emails; phone calls; interviews; non-recorded lecture notes, etc.

Personal communications are not included in the reference list, because it is not usually possible for others to check them, but they may be included as an appendix if appropriate. Personal communications should still be cited in the text.

Example in-text citations

This was confirmed by J. Singh (personal communication, January 15, 2020).

Further confirmation was provided by email (J. Singh, personal communication, January 15, 2020).

Humanities students may be required to follow strict conventions on the use of titles of plays and poems etc and should seek advice from departmental staff.

For plays in print or e-book format, reference them as you would a book.

Play (live performance)

Reference format

Director Surname, Initial. (Director). (Year, Month Date). Title of play by Name of playwright. Theatre, City.

Example full reference

Leach, A. (Director). (2017, March 6). Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Leeds Playhouse, Leeds.

Example in-text citations

Leach (2017)’s production of Romeo and Juliet was set in the present day.

A modern-day version of Romeo and Juliet was staged in Leeds (Leach, 2017).

You should only reference a podcast if you are confident that it is a reliable academic source. If in doubt, ask your lecturer.

In general, you should not reference a lecture podcast created by your lecturer. Instead, you should do your own reading and reference appropriate academic sources.

Reference format

Host Surname, Initial (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of podcast episode (Episode number) [Audio podcast]. In Title of podcast. Provider or

company. URL

Example full reference

Taylor, L. (Host). (2019, May 8). Conspiracy theories (Episode 4) [Audio podcast]. In Thinking Allowed. BBC Radio 4. https://www.bbc.co.uk/

programmes/m0004sly

Example in-text citations

Taylor (2019) discussed the origins of conspiracy theories.

Conspiracy theories have complex origins (Taylor, 2019).

For conventions on the use of titles of plays, poems etc within your writing: Humanities students may be required to follow strict conventions and should seek advice from departmental staff.

Poem in an anthology (e-book)

Reference format

Author of poem Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of poem. In Editor of book Initial, Surname (Ed.), Title of book (edition, page numbers). Publisher. URL.

Example full reference

Browning, R. (2002). Mesmerism. In L. Otis (Ed.), Literature and science in the nineteenth century: an anthology (pp. 415-419). Oxford University

Press. http://www.vlebooks.com

Example in-text citations

The 19th century interest in mesmerism can be seen in this poem by Browning (2002).

The poem dramatizes the idea of mesmerism (Browning, 2002).

Poem in an anthology (print)

Reference format

Author of poem Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of poem. In Editor of book Initial, Surname (Ed.), Title of book (edition, page numbers). Publisher.

Example full reference

Browning, R. (2002). Mesmerism. In L. Otis (Ed.), Literature and science in the nineteenth century: an anthology (pp. 415-419). Oxford University

Press.

Example in-text citations

The 19th century interest in mesmerism can be seen in this poem by Browning (2002).

The poem dramatizes the idea of mesmerism (Browning, 2002).

Poem in a book by the poet (print)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of poem. In Title of book (page numbers). Publisher.

Example full reference

Mort, H. (2016). Ablation. In No Map Could Show Them (p. 42). Chatto & Windus.

Example in-text citations

The poem discusses heart surgery (Mort, 2016).

Mort's poem Ablation (2016) describes heart surgery.

Reference format

Name of company. (Year, Month date.) Title of press release [Press release]. URL

Example reference

International Black History Month UK. (2020, October 13). Black History Month UK: IBHM International explains the history behind Black History

Month UK and how to celebrate it [Press release]. https://www.journalism.co.uk/press-releases/black-history-month-uk/s66/a762307

Example in-text citations

International Black History Month UK (2020) suggested ways to celebrate Black History Month.

Black History Month is an opportunity to learn about black British history (International Black History Month UK, 2020).

Radio programme

Reference format

Presenter Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date of broadcast). Title of programme [Radio broadcast]. Broadcasting company.

Example full reference

Bunn, G. (2011, November 9). The origin of common sense [Radio broadcast]. BBC Radio 4.

Example in-text citations

Bunn (2011) examined the history of common sense.

Common sense has complex historical origins (Bunn, 2011).

Radio programme (online)

Reference format

Presenter Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date of broadcast). Title of programme [Radio broadcast]. Broadcasting company. URL

Example full reference

Bunn, G. (2011, November 9). The origin of common sense [Radio broadcast]. BBC Radio 4. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b016x234

Example in-text citations

Bunn (2011) examined the history of common sense.

Common sense has complex historical origins (Bunn, 2011).

These include texts such as the Bible, Torah or Quran.

If you are quoting from or referring to a specific section of a religious text, include details of the book, Sura or chapter and verse within your in-text citation.

Religious text (e-book)

Reference format

Book title/version. (Year). Publisher. URL

Example reference

The Bible: authorised King James version with apocrypha. (2008). Oxford University Press. https://www.amazon.co.uk/

Religious text (print)

Reference format

Book title/version. (Year). Publisher.

Example reference

The Bible: authorised King James version with apocrypha. (2008). Oxford University Press.

Example in-text citations (with reference to a specific verse)

In The Bible: authorised King James version (2008, Genesis 4:9), Cain asked whether he was his brother’s keeper.

Cain asked whether he was his brother’s keeper (The Bible: authorised King James version, 2008, Genesis 4:9).

This format can be used for referencing reports published by organisations (e.g. government departments, charities or companies).

If no individual people are named as the authors of the report, you should use the name of the organisation as the author. See Company as an author.

Some reports (e.g. government reports) are numbered. If the report does not have a number, you can leave this out of the reference.

If you have used the name of the organisation as the author, you do not need to list the organisation again before the URL. See examples below.

Report (online) with a person as the author

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of report (Report number). Name of organisation. URL

Example full reference

Brown, R. (2018). Mental health and wellbeing provision in schools. Department for Education. https://www.gov.uk

/government/publications/mental-health-and-wellbeing-provision-in-schools

Example in-text citations

Brown (2018) investigated school policies on pupil wellbeing.

Schools have taken various approaches to pupil wellbeing (Brown, 2018).

Report (online) with an organisation as the author

Reference format

Name of organisation. (Year). Title of report (Report number). URL

Example full reference

Department for Education. (2015). Mental health and behaviour in schools: departmental advice for school staff. https://www.gov.uk

/government/publications/mental-health-and-behaviour-in-schools--2

Example in-text citations

Department for Education (2015) found that mental health issues affect children’s behaviour.

Mental health issues can affect children’s behaviour (Department for Education, 2015).

Report (print)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of report (Report number). Name of organisation.

Example full reference

Brown, R. (2018). Mental health and wellbeing provision in schools (3). Department for Education.

Example in-text citations

Brown (2018) investigated school policies on pupil wellbeing.

Schools have taken various approaches to pupil wellbeing (Brown, 2018).

You should only reference information found on social media if you are sure that it is a reliable academic source, or if you are specifically studying social media. If in doubt, check with your lecturer first.

For social media references, the title should be the first 20 words of the post. If a post includes images, videos, links etc., this information goes in square brackets after the post title.

If you accessed a social media post using an app, you do not need to provide the URL.

Facebook

Reference format

Name of account. (Date). Title. [Image/video attached if applicable] [Post type]. Facebook. URL

Example reference

News from Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system - and

beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/type=3&theater

Example in-text citations

News from Science (2019) reports that a surprising meteorite discovery points to earlier chaos.

A surprising meteorite discovery points to earlier chaos (News from Science, 2019).

Instagram

Reference format

Post author Surname, Initials. [@username]. (Date). Title. [Image/video attached if applicable] [Post type]. Instagram. URL

Example reference

Ocasio-Cortez, A. [@repaoc]. (2020, December 30). With our first term in Congress coming to an end, we wanted to take a look back at the

rollercoaster… [Image attached] [Instagram post]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CJbXU-NlLmv/

Example in-text citation

Ocasio-Cortez (2020) summarised the political achievements of her first term in Congress.

Several new pieces of legislation were passed during the first term (Ocasio-Cortez, 2020).

Twitter

Reference format

Tweet author Surname, Initials. [@username]. (Date). Title. [Image/video attached if applicable] [Post type]. Twitter. URL

Example reference

Abbott, D. [@HackneyAbbott]. (2021, January 7). No child should be deprived of an education because their parents can't afford the cost of home

internet. The Government...[Video attached]. [Tweet] Twitter. https://twitter.com/HackneyAbbott/status/ 1347218992214269957

Example in-text citation

Abbott (2021) suggested the government should provide free broadband.

Children’s education can suffer without home internet (Abbott, 2021).

Statutory Instruments (also known as SIs) are a form of legislation. They enable an Act of Parliament to be brought into force or amended without a new act being passed.

Statutory Instrument (online)

Reference format

Title of Statutory Instrument including year. SI Year enacted/Number. Publisher. URL

Example full reference

Further Education Loans Regulations 2012. SI 2012/1818. Stationery Office. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/1818/pdfs/uksi_ 20121818_en.pdf

Example in-text citations

The Further Education Loans Regulations (2012) demonstrate this.

This is demonstrated in the Statutory Instrument laid before Parliament (Further Education Loans Regulations, 2012).

Statutory Instrument (print)

Reference format

Title of Statutory Instrument including year. SI Year enacted/Number. Publisher.

Example full reference

Further Education Loans Regulations 2012. SI 2012/1818. Stationery Office.

Example in-text citations

The Further Education Loans Regulations (2012) demonstrates this.

This is demonstrated in the Statutory Instrument laid before Parliament (Further Education Loans Regulations, 2012).

Television programme (series)

Reference format

Executive Producer Surname, Initial. (Executive Producer). (Dates of broadcast). Title of programme [TV series]. Production company.

Example full reference

Jones, A., & Brooker, C. (Executive Producers). (2011-2019). Black Mirror [TV series]. House of Tomorrow.

Example in-text citations

Jones and Brooker (2011-2019) explored themes of technology in Black Mirror.

Black Mirror explored themes of technology and humanity (Jones & Brooker, 2011-2019).

Television programme (episode from a series)

Reference format

Writer Surname, Initial. (Writer) & Director Surname, Initial. (Director). (Original air date). Title of episode (Series number, Episode number) [TV

series episode]. In Executive Producer Initial, Surname (Executive Producer), Series title. Production company.

Example full reference

Brooker, C. (Writer) & Foster, J. (Director). (22 December 2019). Arkangel (Series 4, Episode 2) [TV series episode]. In A. Jones & C. Brooker

(Executive Producers), Black Mirror. House of Tomorrow.

Example in-text citations

Brooker and Foster (2017) explored the influence of technology on parenting.

The impact of technology on parenting was explored in Arkangel (Brooker & Foster, 2017).

You should only use information found in an online video if you are sure that it is a reliable academic source (or if, for example, you are specifically studying YouTube videos). If in doubt, ask your lecturer.

For online videos, the "author" in the reference is the person or organisation who posted the video online.

If you can’t identify the author of a video, see Screen names and online usernames

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Name of website. URL

Example full reference

Hawkinson, S. (2017, February 24). Controversial psychology experiments [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=axs9lViyghA

Example in-text citations

Hawkinson (2017) stated that many controversial experiments are now seen as unethical.

Many controversial psychology experiments are now viewed as unethical (Hawkinson, 2017).

You should only use information found on a website if you are sure that it is a reliable academic source. If in doubt, ask your lecturer.

If you can't identify the author of a website, you should use the name of the organisation as the author. E.g. for an article with no author on the Mind website, you could use Mind as the author.

If you have used the organisation as the author, you do not need to include it again before the URL. See examples below.

Website (with a person as the author)

Reference format

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of webpage. Name of website. URL

Example full reference

Brenner, G. H. (2020, January 19). Is burnout actually a form of depression? Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com

/gb/blog/psychiatry-the-people/202001/is-burnout-actually-form-depression

Example in-text citations

Brenner (2020) questioned the difference between burnout and depression.

Burnout may be classed as a form of depression (Brenner, 2020).

Website (with an organisation as the author)

Reference format

Name of organisation. (Year, Month Date). Title of webpage. URL

Example full reference

Mind. (2017, December). Food and mood. https://www.mind.org.uk/ information-support/tips-for-everyday-living/food-and-mood/about-food-

and-mood/

Example in-text citations

Mind (2017) suggested that healthy eating can improve your mood.

Healthy eating can improve your mood (Mind, 2017).

Occasionally it may be necessary to reference your own work which you have submitted for a previous assessment (e.g. for a reflective report, or to avoid self-plagiarism). If you are not sure whether to reference your own work, check with your lecturer first.

Reference format

Student surname, Initial. (Year). Title of essay/assignment [Unpublished essay]. Module code. Name of university.

Example full reference

Firth, B. (2017). Referencing: friend or foe? [Unpublished essay]. HIS5033. Leeds Trinity University.

Example in-text citation

Firth (2017)

(Firth, 2017)